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PI: Tilden Meyers - NOAA/ARL
Lat, Long: 35.9588, -84.2874
Elevation(m): 283
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Consists of broadleaf tree communities with an annual cycle of leaf-on and leaf-off periods.)
Climate Koeppen: Cfa (Humid Subtropical: mild with no dry season, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 13.71
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 1372.05
Flux Species Measured: CO2
Years Data Collected: 1995 - 1999
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 1995 - 2007   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux Legacy Policy
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Research Topics:
1) Use micrometeorological methods to quantify the seasonal and annual exchange of carbon dioxide by a temperature deciduous forest, an ecosystem of global ...
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Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-WBW data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux Legacy Policy

  • AmeriFlux BASE:
    Citation: Tilden Meyers (2016), AmeriFlux BASE US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed, Ver. 2-1, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset).

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization



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Note: Results are the number of downloads to distinct data users. The Download Count column indicates the number of times the data user downloaded the data. The Version column refers to the version of the data product for the site that was downloaded by the data user.

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Year Publication
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350.
2016 Novick, K. A., Ficklin, D. L., Stoy, P. C., Williams, C. A., Bohrer, G., Oishi, A., Papuga, S. A., Blanken, P. D., Noormets, A., Sulman, B. N., Scott, R. L., Wang, L., Phillips, R. P. (2016) The Increasing Importance Of Atmospheric Demand For Ecosystem Water And Carbon Fluxes, Nature Climate Change, 6(11), 1023-1027.
1991 Chason, J. Huston, M. D. D. Baldocchi (1991) A comparison of direct and indirect methods for estimating forest canopy leaf area, Agricultural Forest Meteorology, 57, 107-128.
2018 Chu, H., Baldocchi, D. D., Poindexter, C., Abraha, M., Desai, A. R., Bohrer, G., Arain, M. A., Griffis, T., Blanken, P. D., O'Halloran, T. L., Thomas, R. Q., Zhang, Q., Burns, S. P., Frank, J. M., Christian, D., Brown, S., Black, T. A., Gough, C. M., Law, B. E., Lee, X., Chen, J., Reed, D. E., Massman, W. J., Clark, K., Hatfield, J., Prueger, J., Bracho, R., Baker, J. M., Martin, T. A. (2018) Temporal Dynamics Of Aerodynamic Canopy Height Derived From Eddy Covariance Momentum Flux Data Across North American Flux Networks, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9275–9287.
2008 Gu, L., Hanson, P. J., Post, W. M., Kaiser, D. P., Yang, B., Nemani, R., Pallardy, S. G., Meyers, T. (2008) The 2007 Eastern Us Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage In A Warming World?, Bioscience, 58(3), 253-262.
2018 Helliker, B. R., Song, X., Goulden, M. L., Clark, K., Bolstad, P., Munger, J. W., Chen, J., Noormets, A., Hollinger, D., Wofsy, S., Martin, T., Baldocchi, D., Euskirchenn, E., Desai, A., Burns, S. P. (2018) Assessing The Interplay Between Canopy Energy Balance And Photosynthesis With Cellulose δ18o: Large-Scale Patterns And Independent Ground-Truthing, Oecologia, .
2015 Dennis Baldocchi, Cove Sturtevant (2015) Does day and night sampling reduce spurious correlation between canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration?, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 207, 117-126.
2012 Wharton, S., Falk, M., Bible, K., Schroeder, M., Paw U, K.T. (2012) Old-Growth CO2 Flux Measurements Reveal High Sensitivity To Climate Anomalies Across Seasonal, Annual And Decadal Time Scales, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 161, 1-14.
1989 Baldocchi, D. D. (1989) Turbulent Transfer In A Deciduous Forest, Tree Physiology, 5(3), 357-377.
1986 Baldocchi, D. D., Verma, S. B., Matt, D. R., Anderson, D. E. (1986) Eddy-Correlation Measurements Of Carbon Dioxide Efflux From The Floor Of A Deciduous Forest, The Journal Of Applied Ecology, 23(3), 967-977.
1986 Balick, L., Hutchinson, B. (1986) Directional Thermal Infrared Exitance Distributions From A Leafless Deciduous Forest, IEEE Transactions On Geoscience And Remote Sensing, GE-24(5), 693-698.
1988 Baldocchi, D. D., Meyers, T. P. (1988) A Spectral And Lag-Correlation Analysis Of Turbulence In A Deciduous Forest Canopy, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 45(1-2), 31-58.
2004 Hui, D., Wan, S., Su, B., Katul, G., Monson, R., Luo, Y. (2004) Gap-Filling Missing Data In Eddy Covariance Measurements Using Multiple Imputation (MI) For Annual Estimations, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 121(1-2), 93-111.
2002 Davidson, E., Savage, K., Bolstad, P., Clark, D., Curtis, P., Ellsworth, D., Hanson, P., Law, B., Luo, Y., Pregitzer, K., Randolph, J., Zak, D. (2002) Belowground Carbon Allocation In Forests Estimated From Litterfall And IRGA-Based Soil Respiration Measurements, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 39-51.
2001 Wilson, K. B., Baldocchi, D. D. (2001) Comparing Independent Estimates Of Carbon Dioxide Exchange Over 5 Years At A Deciduous Forest In The Southeastern United States, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D24), 34167-34178.
1995 Harley, P. C., Baldocchi, D. D. (1995) Scaling Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapour Exchange From Leaf To Canopy In A Deciduous Forest. I. Leaf Model Parametrization, Plant, Cell And Environment, 18(10), 1146-1156.
1986 Verma, S. B., Baldocchi, D. D., Anderson, D. E., Matt, D. R., Clement, R. J. (1986) Eddy Fluxes Of CO2, Water Vapor, And Sensible Heat Over A Deciduous Forest, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 36(1-2), 71-91.
1988 Baldocchi, D. D., Meyers, T. P. (1988) Turbulence Structure In A Deciduous Forest, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 43(4), 345-364.
2001 Wilson, K. B., Hanson, P. J., Mulholland, P. J., Baldocchi, D. D., Wullschleger, S. D. (2001) A Comparison Of Methods For Determining Forest Evapotranspiration And Its Components: Sap-Flow, Soil Water Budget, Eddy Covariance And Catchment Water Balance, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 106(2), 153-168.
1977 Andren, A. W., Lindberg, S. E. (1977) Atmospheric Input And Origin Of Selected Elements In Walker Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Water, Air, And Soil Pollution, 8(2), 199-215.
1999 Bowling, D. R., Baldocchi, D. D., Monson, R. K. (1999) Dynamics Of Isotopic Exchange Of Carbon Dioxide In A Tennessee Deciduous Forest, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13(4), 903-922.
1986 Baldocchi, D. D., Hutchison, B. A. (1986) On Estimating Canopy Photosynthesis And Stomatal Conductance In A Deciduous Forest With Clumped Foliage, Tree Physiology, 2(1-2-3), 155-168.
2005 Hanson, P. J., Wullschleger, S. D., Norby, R. J., Tschaplinski, T. J., Gunderson, C. A. (2005) Importance Of Changing CO2, Temperature, Precipitation, And Ozone On Carbon And Water Cycles Of An Upland-Oak Forest: Incorporating Experimental Results Into Model Simulations, Global Change Biology, 11(9), 1402-1423.
1999 Malhi, Y., Baldocchi, D. D., Jarvis, P. G. (1999) The Carbon Balance Of Tropical, Temperate And Boreal Forests, Plant, Cell And Environment, 22(6), 715-740.
1995 Baldocchi, D. D., Harley, P. C. (1995) Scaling Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapour Exchange From Leaf To Canopy In A Deciduous Forest. II. Model Testing And Application, Plant, Cell And Environment, 18(10), 1157-1173.
1981 Lindberg, S. E., Harriss, R. C. (1981) The Role Of Atmospheric Deposition In An Eastern U.S. Deciduous Forest, Water, Air, And Soil Pollution, 16(1), 13-31.
2001 Wilson, K. B., Baldocchi, D. D., Hanson, P. J. (2001) Leaf Age Affects The Seasonal Pattern Of Photosynthetic Capacityand Net Ecosystem Exchange Of Carbon In A Deciduous Forest, Plant, Cell And Environment, 24(6), 571-583.
1989 Hicks, B. B., Matt, D. R., McMillen, R. T., Womack, J. D., Wesely, M. L., Hart, R. L., Cook, D. R., Lindberg, S. E., Depena, R. G., Thomson, D. W. (1989) A Field Investigation Of Sulfate Fluxes To A Deciduous Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 94(D10), 13003-n/a.
1983 Richter, D. D., Johnson, D. W., Todd, D. E. (1983) Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition, Neutralization, And Ion Leaching In Two Deciduous Forest Ecosystems, Journal Of Environment Quality, 12(2), 263-270.
1996 Baldocchi, D. D., Vogel, C. A. (1996) Energy And CO2 Flux Densities Above And Below A Temperate Broad-Leaved Forest And A Boreal Pine Forest, Tree Physiology, 16(1-2), 5-16.
1988 Baldocchi, D. D., Hicks, B. B., Meyers, T. P. (1988) Measuring Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchanges Of Biologically Related Gases With Micrometeorological Methods, Ecology, 69(5), 1331-1340.
1980 Hutchison, B., Matt, D., McMillen, R. (1980) Effects Of Sky Brightness Distribution Upon Penetration Of Diffuse Radiation Through Canopy Gaps In A Deciduous Forest, Agricultural Meteorology, 22(2), 137-147.
1971 Grigal, D. F., Goldstein, R. A. (1971) An Integrated Ordination-Classification Analysis Of An Intensively Sampled Oak-Hickory Forest, The Journal Of Ecology, 59(2), 481-492.
1981 Luxmoore, R. J., Grizzard, T., Patterson, M. R. (1981) Hydraulic Properties Of Fullerton Cherty Silt Loam, Soil Science Society Of America Journal, 45(4), 692-698.
2003 Matamala, R., Gonzalez-Meler, M. A., Jastrow, J. D., Norby, R. J., Schlesinger, W. H. (2003) Impacts Of Fine Root Turnover On Forest NPP And Soil C Sequestration Potential, Science, 302(5649), 1385-1387.
1980 Hoffman, W. A., Lindberg, S. E., Turner, R. R. (1980) Some Observations Of Organic Constituents In Rain Above And Below A Forest Canopy, Environmental Science & Technology, 14(8), 999-1002.
1997 Baldocchi, D. (1997) Measuring And Modelling Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapour Exchange Over A Temperate Broad-Leaved Forest During The 1995 Summer Drought, Plant, Cell And Environment, 20(9), 1108-1122.
1977 Edwards, N. T., Harris, W. F. (1977) Carbon Cycling In A Mixed Deciduous Forest Floor, Ecology, 58(2), 431-437.
2000 Wilson, K. B., Baldocchi, D. D., Hanson, P. J. (2000) Spatial And Seasonal Variability Of Photosynthetic Parameters And Their Relationship To Leaf Nitrogen In A Deciduous Forest, Tree Physiology, 20(9), 565-578.
1996 Greco, S., Baldocchi, D. D. (1996) Seasonal Variations Of CO2 And Water Vapour Exchange Rates Over A Temperate Deciduous Forest, Global Change Biology, 2(3), 183-197.
2003 Baldocchi, D. D., Bowling, D. R. (2003) Modelling The Discrimination Of 13CO2 Above And Within A Temperate Broad-Leaved Forest Canopy On Hourly To Seasonal Time Scales, Plant, Cell And Environment, 26(2), 231-244.
1983 Luxmoore, R. J. (1983) Water Budget Of An Eastern Deciduous Forest Stand, Soil Science Society Of America Journal, 47(4), 785-791.
2002 Baldocchi, D. D., Wilson, K. B., Gu, L. (2002) How The Environment, Canopy Structure And Canopy Physiological Functioning Influence Carbon, Water And Energy Fluxes Of A Temperate Broad-Leaved Deciduous Forest–An Assessment With The Biophysical Model CANOAK, Tree Physiology, 22(15-16), 1065-1077.
2003 McLaughlin, S. B., Wullschleger, S. D., Nosal, M. (2003) Diurnal And Seasonal Changes In Stem Increment And Water Use By Yellow Poplar Trees In Response To Environmental Stress, Tree Physiology, 23(16), 1125-1136.
2001 Hanson, P. J., Todd, D. E., Amthor, J. S. (2001) A Six-Year Study Of Sapling And Large-Tree Growth And Mortality Responses To Natural And Induced Variability In Precipitation And Throughfall, Tree Physiology, 21(6), 345-358.
1975 Grigal, D. F., Grizzard, T. (1975) Analysis Of Litterfall In A Deciduous Forest On Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee: Data Stratification By Two Alternative Methods, American Midland Naturalist, 94(2), 361-369.
1986 Hutchison, B. A., Matt, D. R., McMillen, R. T., Gross, L. J., Tajchman, S. J., Norman, J. M. (1986) The Architecture Of A Deciduous Forest Canopy In Eastern Tennessee, U.S.A., The Journal Of Ecology, 74(3), 635-676.
2004 Gu, L., Post, W. M., King, A. W. (2004) Fast Labile Carbon Turnover Obscures Sensitivity Of Heterotrophic Respiration From Soil To Temperature: A Model Analysis, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18(1), n/a-n/a.
1984 Baldocchi, D., Hutchison, B., Matt, D., McMillen, R. (1984) Seasonal Variations In The Radiation Regime Within An Oak-Hickory Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 33(2-3), 177-191.
2001 Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Wilson, K. (2001) A Spectral Analysis Of Biosphere–Atmosphere Trace Gas Flux Densities And Meteorological Variables Across Hour To Multi-Year Time Scales, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 107(1), 1-27.
1991 Baldocchi, D. D., Meyers, T. P. (1991) Trace Gas Exchange Above The Floor Of A Deciduous Forest: 1. Evaporation And CO2 Efflux, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 96(D4), 7271-7285.
1987 Baldocchi, D. D., Hicks, B. B., Camara, P. (1987) A Canopy Stomatal Resistance Model For Gaseous Deposition To Vegetated Surfaces, Atmospheric Environment, 21(1), 91-101.
2004 Yi, C., Li, R., Bakwin, P. S., Desai, A., Ricciuto, D. M., Burns, S. P., Turnipseed, A. A., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Wilson, K., Monson, R. K. (2004) A Nonparametric Method For Separating Photosynthesis And Respiration Components In CO2 Flux Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 31(17), n/a-n/a.
1997 Harley, P., Guenther, A., Zimmerman, P. (1997) Environmental Controls Over Isoprene Emission In Deciduous Oak Canopies, Tree Physiology, 17(11), 705-714.
1977 Cushman, R. M., Elwood, J. W., Hildebrand, S. G. (1977) Life History And Production Dynamics Of Alloperla Mediana And Diplectrona Modesta In Walker Branch, Tennessee, American Midland Naturalist, 98(2), 354-364.
1980 Hoffman, W. A., Lindberg, S. E., Turner, R. R. (1980) Precipitation Acidity: The Role Of The Forest Canopy In Acid Exchange, Journal Of Environment Quality, 9(1), 95-100.
1986 Baldocchi, D., Hutchison, B., Matt, D., McMillen, R. (1986) Seasonal Variation In The Statistics Of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Penetration In An Oak-Hickory Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 36(4), 343-361.
2004 Bond-Lamberty, B., Wang, C., Gower, S. T. (2004) A Global Relationship Between The Heterotrophic And Autotrophic Components Of Soil Respiration?, Global Change Biology, 10(10), 1756-1766.
1984 Baldocchi, D., Matt, D., Hutchison, B., Mcmillen, R. (1984) Solar Radiation Within An Oak—Hickory Forest: An Evaluation Of The Extinction Coefficients For Several Radiation Components During Fully-Leafed And Leafless Periods, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 32(3-4), 307-322.
2004 Matamala, R., Gonzalez-Meler, M. A., Jastrow, J. D., Norby, R. J., Schlesinger, W. H. (2004) Response To Comment On "Impacts Of Fine Root Turnover On Forest NPP And Soil C Sequestration Potential", Science, 304(5678), 1745d-1745d.
1977 Henderson, G. S., Harris, W. F., Todd, D. E., Grizzard, T. (1977) Quantity And Chemistry Of Throughfall As Influenced By Forest-Type And Season, The Journal Of Ecology, 65(2), 365-374.
2000 Wilson, K. B., Baldocchi, D. D. (2000) Seasonal And Interannual Variability Of Energy Fluxes Over A Broadleaved Temperate Deciduous Forest In North America, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 100(1), 1-18.
2001 Baldocchi, D. D., Wilson, K. B. (2001) Modeling CO2 And Water Vapor Exchange Of A Temperate Broadleaved Forest Across Hourly To Decadal Time Scales, Ecological Modelling, 142(1-2), 155-184.
1982 Lindberg, S. E., Harriss, R. C., Turner, R. R. (1982) Atmospheric Deposition Of Metals To Forest Vegetation, Science, 215(4540), 1609-1611.
1985 Baldocchi, D. D., Hutchison, B. A., Matt, D. R., McMillen, R. T. (1985) Canopy Radiative Transfer Models For Spherical And Known Leaf Inclination Angle Distributions: A Test In An Oak-Hickory Forest, The Journal Of Applied Ecology, 22(2), 539-555.
1975 Lindberg, S.E., Andren, A.W., Raridon, R.J., Fulkerson, W. (1975) Mass Balance Of Trace Elements In Walker Branch Watershed: Relation To Coal-Fired Steam Plants, Environmental Health Perspectives, 12, 9-18.
2000 Wilson, K. B., Hanson, P. J., Baldocchi, D. D. (2000) Factors Controlling Evaporation And Energy Partitioning Beneath A Deciduous Forest Over An Annual Cycle, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 102(2-3), 83-103.
1998 Baldocchi, D., Meyers, T. (1998) On Using Eco-Physiological, Micrometeorological And Biogeochemical Theory To Evaluate Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor And Trace Gas Fluxes Over Vegetation: A Perspective, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 90(1-2), 1-25.
1989 Wang, H., Baldocchi, D. D. (1989) A Numerical Model For Simulating The Radiation Regime Within A Deciduous Forest Canopy, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 46(4), 313-337.
1998 Bowling, D. R., Turnipseed, A. A., Delany, A. C., Baldocchi, D. D., Greenberg, J. P., Monson, R. K. (1998) The Use Of Relaxed Eddy Accumulation To Measure Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange Of Isoprene And Other Biological Trace Gases, Oecologia, 116(3), 306-315.

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 822m x 822m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am