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US-Wlr: Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

PI: David Cook - Argonne National Laboratory
PI: Richard L. Coulter - Argonne National Laboratory
Lat, Long: 37.5208, -96.8550
Elevation(m): 408
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: GRA (Grasslands: Lands with herbaceous types of cover. Tree and shrub cover is less than 10%. Permanent wetlands lands with a permanent mixture of water and herbaceous or woody vegetation. The vegetation can be present in either salt, brackish, or fresh water.)
Climate Koeppen: Cfa (Humid Subtropical: mild with no dry season, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 13.52
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 881
Flux Species Measured: CO2
Years Data Collected: 2001 - 2004
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 2001 - 2004   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land ...
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Research Topics: Measurements of the planetary boundary layer
Site Tasks
  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
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US-Wlr: Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-Wlr data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if US-Wlr data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE:
    Citation: David Cook, Richard L. Coulter (2018), AmeriFlux BASE US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg), Ver. 4-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset).

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization



US-Wlr: Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

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US-Wlr: Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

Year Publication
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350.
2005 Grossman, R. L., Yates, D., LeMone, M. A., Wesely, M. L., Song, J. (2005) Observed Effects Of Horizontal Radiative Surface Temperature Variations On The Atmosphere Over A Midwest Watershed During CASES 97, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D6), n/a-n/a.
2003 Chen, F., Yates, D. N., Nagai, H., LeMone, M. A., Ikeda, K., Grossman, R. L. (2003) Land Surface Heterogeneity In The Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASE-97). Part I: Comparing Modeled Surface Flux Maps With Surface-Flux Tower And Aircraft Measurements, Journal Of Hydrometeorology, 4(2), 196-218.<196:LSHITC>2.0.CO;2
2005 Song, J., Liao, K., Coulter, R. L., Lesht, B. M. (2005) Climatology Of The Low-Level Jet At The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments Site, Journal Of Applied Meteorology, 44(10), 1593-1606.
2006 Coulter, R., Pekour, M., Cook, D., Klazura, G., Martin, T., Lucas, J. (2006) Surface Energy And Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Above Different Vegetation Types Within ABLE, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 136(3-4), 147-158.
2003 Song, J., Wesely, M. (2003) On Comparison Of Modeled Surface Flux Variations To Aircraft Observations, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 117(3-4), 159-171.
1998 Gao, W., Coulter, R. L., Lesht, B. M., Qiu, J., Wesely, M. L. (1998) Estimating Clear-Sky Regional Surface Fluxes In The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site With Ground Measurements And Satellite Observations, Journal Of Applied Meteorology, 37(1), 5-22.<0005:ECSRSF>2.0.CO;2
2000 Song, J., Wesely, M. L., Coulter, R. L., Brandes, E. A. (2000) Estimating Watershed Evapotranspiration With Pass. Part I: Inferring Root-Zone Moisture Conditions Using Satellite Data, Journal Of Hydrometeorology, 1(5), 447-461.<0447:EWEWPP>2.0.CO;2
2000 Jacobs, J. M., Coulter, R. L., Brutsaert, W. (2000) Surface Heat Flux Estimation With Wind-Profiler/RASS And Radiosonde Observations, Advances In Water Resources, 23(4), 339-348.
2000 LeMone, M. A., Grossman, R. L., Coulter, R. L., Wesley, M. L., Klazura, G. E., Poulos, G. S., Blumen, W., Lundquist, J. K., Cuenca, R. H., Kelly, S. F., Brandes, E. A., Oncley, S. P., McMillen, R. T., Hicks, B. B. (2000) Land–Atmosphere Interaction Research, Early Results, And Opportunities In The Walnut River Watershed In Southeast Kansas: CASES And ABLE, Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 81(4), 757-779.<0757:LIRERA>2.3.CO;2

US-Wlr: Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

US-Wlr: Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 805m x 805m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am