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Tower_team:
PI: Greg Barron-Gafford gregbg@email.arizona.edu - University of Arizona
AncContact: John Knowles jfknowles@csuchico.edu - California State University, Chico
AncContact: Russ Scott russ.scott@usda.gov - USDA ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center
Lat, Long: 32.4160, -110.7256
Elevation(m): 2573
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Almost all trees remain green all year. Canopy is never without green foliage.)
Climate Koeppen: Dwb (Warm Summer Continental: dry winters )
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 9.3
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 790
Flux Species Measured: CO2, H2O
Years Data Collected: 2009 - Present
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 2009 - 2021   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
Description:
Western slope of Mt. Bigelow; 29 km NE of Tucson, AZ, USA; Mixed evergreen conifer forest; Average canopy height = 10 m; Summer monsoon; 30-m tower installed ...
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URL: https://www.barrongafford.org/montane-ecosystem--the-critical-zone.html
Research Topics: Ecohydrology
Acknowledgment: Funding for the Mt. Bigelow operation and maintenance was provided by National Science Foundation EAR awards 0724958 and 1331408 to the Catalina-Jemez Critical Zone Observatory.
Site Tasks
  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
Site Photo More Site Images
Image Credit: John Knowles, 10/21/2019
Copyright preference: As long as credit is given
Site Publication More Site Publications
Knowles, J. F., Scott, R. L., Minor, R. L., Barron-Gafford, G. A. 2020. Ecosystem Carbon And Water Cycling From A Sky Island Montane Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 281, 107835.

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-MtB data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if US-MtB data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE: https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1579717
    Citation: Greg Barron-Gafford (2022), AmeriFlux BASE US-MtB Mt Bigelow, Ver. 4-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset). https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1579717

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization

Acknowledgments

Resources

This page displays the list of downloads of data for the site {{siteId}}.

Note: Results are the number of downloads to distinct data users. The Download Count column indicates the number of times the data user downloaded the data. The Version column refers to the version of the data product for the site that was downloaded by the data user.

Year Range

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MODIS NDVI

The time series shows the 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) average from the MOD13Q1 data product.
Use the slider below the time series to zoom in and out.

Includes all pixels that have acceptable quality

To view / download these data and other MOD13Q1 products for this site, visit MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices.

For other related products, visit MODIS/VIIRS Fixed Sites Subsets Tool.

Citation:

ORNL DAAC. 2018. MODIS and VIIRS Land Products Fixed Sites Subsetting and Visualization Tool. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1567

Read more on how to cite these MODIS products. Data come from NASA’s MODIS instruments installed on satellites Terra and Aqua, which scan the entire Earth’s surface every one to two days.

MODIS NDVI subsetted data is not yet available for this site.

For a complete list of AmeriFlux sites, visit ORNL DAAC's MODIS/VIIRS Fixed Sites Subsets Tool.

Year Publication
2022 Javadian, M., Smith, W. K., Lee, K., Knowles, J. F., Scott, R. L., Fisher, J. B., Moore, D. J., Leeuwen, W. J., Barron‐Gafford, G., Behrangi, A. (2022) Canopy Temperature Is Regulated By Ecosystem Structural Traits And Captures The Ecohydrologic Dynamics Of A Semiarid Mixed Conifer Forest Site, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 127(2), e2021JG006617. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JG006617
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108350
2021 Dwivedi, R., Eastoe, C., Knowles, J. F., Hamann, L., Meixner, T., Ferre, P.A., Castro, C., Wright, W.E., Niu, G.-Y., Minor, R., Barron-Gafford, G. A., Abramson, N., Mitra, B., Papuga, S.A., Stanley, M., Chorover, J. (2021) An improved practical approach for estimating catchment‐scale response functions through wavelet analysis, Hydrological Processes, 35(3), e14082. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.14082
2020 Murphy, P. C., Knowles, J. F., Moore, D. J. P., Anchukaitis, K., Potts, D. L., Barron-Gafford, G. A. (2020) Topography Influences Species-Specific Patterns Of Seasonal Primary Productivity In A Semiarid Montane Forest, Tree Physiology, 40(10), 1343-1354. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpaa083
2020 Yang, J. C., Magney, T. S., Yan, D., Knowles, J. F., Smith, W. K., Scott, R. L., Barron‐Gafford, G. A. (2020) The Photochemical Reflectance Index (Pri) Captures The Ecohydrologic Sensitivity Of A Semiarid Mixed Conifer Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 125(11), . https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005624
2020 Knowles, J. F., Scott, R. L., Biederman, J. A., Blanken, P. D., Burns, S. P., Dore, S., Kolb, T. E., Litvak, M. E., Barron‐Gafford, G. A. (2020) Montane Forest Productivity Across A Semiarid Climatic Gradient, Global Change Biology, 26(12), 6945-6958. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15335
2019 Dwivedi, R., Eastoe, C., Knowles, J. F., Wright, W. E., Hamann, L., Minor, R., Mitra, B., Meixner, T., McIntosh, J., Ty Ferre, P. A., Castro, C., Niu, G., Barron‐Gafford, G. A., Abramson, N., Papuga, S. A., Stanley, M., Hu, J., Chorover, J. (2019) Vegetation Source Water Identification Using Isotopic And Hydrometric Observations From A Subhumid Mountain Catchment, Ecohydrology, 13, . https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2167
2019 Olshansky, Y., Knowles, J. F., Barron‐Gafford, G. A., Rasmussen, C., Abramson, N., Chorover, J. (2019) Soil Fluid Biogeochemical Response To Climatic Events, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 124(9), 2866-2882. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005216
2018 Chang, L., Dwivedi, R., Knowles, J. F., Fang, Y., Niu, G., Pelletier, J. D., Rasmussen, C., Durcik, M., Barron-Gafford, G. A., Meixner, T. (2018) Why Do Large-Scale Land Surface Models Produce A Low Ratio Of Transpiration To Evapotranspiration?, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(17), 9109-9130. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029159
2020 Knowles, J. F., Scott, R. L., Minor, R. L., Barron-Gafford, G. A. (2020) Ecosystem Carbon And Water Cycling From A Sky Island Montane Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 281, 107835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107835

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 857m x 857m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    Utility
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am