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US-Ha2: Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

Tower_team:
PI: J. William Munger jwmunger@seas.harvard.edu - Harvard University
Technician: Mark VanScoy mvanscoy@fas.harvard.edu - Harvard University
Lat, Long: 42.5393, -72.1779
Elevation(m): 360
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux, LTER, Phenocam
Vegetation IGBP: ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Almost all trees remain green all year. Canopy is never without green foliage.)
Climate Koeppen: Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 6.56
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 1071
Flux Species Measured: CO2, H, H2O
Years Data Collected: 2004 - Present
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 2004 - 2023   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
Description:
The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of ...
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URL: http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/research-facilities-and-resources
Research Topics:
Acknowledgment: Operation of the US-Ha2 site is supported by the AmeriFlux Management Project with funding by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and additionally is a part of the Harvard Forest LTER site supported by the National Science Foundation (DEB-1237491).
Site Tasks
  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
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Image Credit:
Copyright preference: Request for permission
Site Publication More Site Publications

US-Ha2: Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-Ha2 data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if US-Ha2 data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE: https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1246060
    Citation: Julian Hadley, J. William Munger (2024), AmeriFlux BASE US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site, Ver. 11-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset). https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1246060

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization

Acknowledgments

Resources

US-Ha2: Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

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Note: Results are the number of downloads to distinct data users. The Download Count column indicates the number of times the data user downloaded the data. The Version column refers to the version of the data product for the site that was downloaded by the data user.

Year Range

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US-Ha2: Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

Year Publication
2023 Lee, L. X., Whitby, T. G., Munger, J. W., Stonebrook, S. J., Friedl, M. A. (2023) Remote Sensing Of Seasonal Variation Of Lai And Fapar In A Deciduous Broadleaf Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 333, 109389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2023.109389
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108350
2020 Finzi, A. C., Giasson, M., Barker Plotkin, A. A., Aber, J. D., Boose, E. R., Davidson, E. A., Dietze, M. C., Ellison, A. M., Frey, S. D., Goldman, E., Keenan, T. F., Melillo, J. M., Munger, J. W., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Ollinger, S. V., Orwig, D. A., Pederson, N., Richardson, A. D., Savage, K., Tang, J., Thompson, J. R., Williams, C. A., Wofsy, S. C., Zhou, Z., Foster, D. R. (2020) Carbon Budget Of The Harvard Forest Long‐Term Ecological Research Site: Pattern, Process, And Response To Global Change, Ecological Monographs, . https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1423
2013 Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., Richardson, A. D. (2013) Increase In Forest Water-Use Efficiency As Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Rise, Nature, 499(7458), 324-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12291
2018 Chu, H., Baldocchi, D. D., Poindexter, C., Abraha, M., Desai, A. R., Bohrer, G., Arain, M. A., Griffis, T., Blanken, P. D., O'Halloran, T. L., Thomas, R. Q., Zhang, Q., Burns, S. P., Frank, J. M., Christian, D., Brown, S., Black, T. A., Gough, C. M., Law, B. E., Lee, X., Chen, J., Reed, D. E., Massman, W. J., Clark, K., Hatfield, J., Prueger, J., Bracho, R., Baker, J. M., Martin, T. A. (2018) Temporal Dynamics Of Aerodynamic Canopy Height Derived From Eddy Covariance Momentum Flux Data Across North American Flux Networks, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9275–9287. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079306
2018 Kim, J. H., Hwang, T., Yang, Y., Schaaf, C. L., Boose, E., Munger, J. W. (2018) Warming-Induced Earlier Greenup Leads To Reduced Stream Discharge In A Temperate Mixed Forest Catchment, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123(6), 1960-1975. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JG004438
2017 Kim, J., Hwang, T., Schaaf, C. L., Orwig, D. A., Boose, E., Munger, J. W. (2017) Increased Water Yield Due To The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestation In New England, Geophysical Research Letters, 44(5), 2327-2335. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gl072327
2002 Hadley, J. L., Schedlbauer, J. L. (2002) Carbon Exchange Of An Old-Growth Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) Forest In Central New England, Tree Physiology, 22(15-16), 1079-1092. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/22.15-16.1079
2000 Hadley, J. L. (2000) Effect Of Daily Minimum Temperature On Photosynthesis In Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis L.) In Autumn And Winter, Arctic, Antarctic, And Alpine Research, 32(4), 368-374. https://doi.org/10.2307/1552384
2004 Magill, A. H., Aber, J. D., Currie, W. S., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Martin, M. E., McDowell, W. H., Melillo, J. M., Steudler, P. (2004) Ecosystem Response To 15 Years Of Chronic Nitrogen Additions At The Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA, Forest Ecology And Management, 196(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.03.033
2000 Compton, J. E., Boone, R. D. (2000) Long-Term Impacts Of Agriculture On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen In New England Forests, Ecology, 81(8), 2314-2330. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2314:LTIOAO]2.0.CO;2
2003 Turner, D. P., Urbanski, S., Bremer, D., Wofsy, S. C., Meyers, T., Gower, S. T., Gregory, M. (2003) A Cross-Biome Comparison Of Daily Light Use Efficiency For Gross Primary Production, Global Change Biology, 9(3), 383-395. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00573.x
2004 Yi, C., Li, R., Bakwin, P. S., Desai, A., Ricciuto, D. M., Burns, S. P., Turnipseed, A. A., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Wilson, K., Monson, R. K. (2004) A Nonparametric Method For Separating Photosynthesis And Respiration Components In CO2 Flux Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 31(17), n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl020490
2002 Hadley, J. L., Schedlbauer, J. L. (2002) Carbon Exchange Of An Old-Growth Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) Forest In Central New England, Tree Physiology, 22(15-16), 1079-1092. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/22.15-16.1079
2004 Bond-Lamberty, B., Wang, C., Gower, S. T. (2004) A Global Relationship Between The Heterotrophic And Autotrophic Components Of Soil Respiration?, Global Change Biology, 10(10), 1756-1766. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00816.x

US-Ha2: Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

US-Ha2: Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 748m x 748m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    Utility
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am