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PI: J. William Munger - Harvard University
BADMContact: Tim Whitby - Harvard University
Lat, Long: 42.5378, -72.1715
Elevation(m): 340
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux, LTER, Phenocam
Vegetation IGBP: DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Consists of broadleaf tree communities with an annual cycle of leaf-on and leaf-off periods.)
Climate Koeppen: Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 6.62
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 1071
Flux Species Measured: CO2, H, H2O
Years Data Collected: 1991 - Present
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 1991 - 2021   Data Citation

AmeriFlux FLUXNET 1991 - 2020   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture ...
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Acknowledgment: Operation of the US-Ha1 site is supported by the AmeriFlux Management Project with funding by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and additionally is a part of the Harvard Forest LTER site supported by the National Science Foundation (DEB-1832210).
Site Tasks
  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
Site Photo More Site Images
Image Credit: Bill Munger, 06/06/2003
Copyright preference: As long as credit is given
Site Publication More Site Publications
Urbanski, S., Barford, C., Wofsy, S., Kucharik, C., Pyle, E., Budney, J., McKain, K., Fitzjarrald, D., Czikowsky, M., Munger, J. W. 2007. Factors Controlling CO2 Exchange On Timescales From Hourly To Decadal At Harvard Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research, 112:G2, .

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-Ha1 data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if US-Ha1 data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE:
    Citation: J. William Munger (2022), AmeriFlux BASE US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1), Ver. 18-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset).
  • AmeriFlux FLUXNET:
    Citation: J. William Munger (2022), AmeriFlux FLUXNET-1F US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1), Ver. 3-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset).

Find global FLUXNET datasets, like FLUXNET2015 and FLUXNET-CH4, and their citation information at

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization



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Note: Results are the number of downloads to distinct data users. The Download Count column indicates the number of times the data user downloaded the data. The Version column refers to the version of the data product for the site that was downloaded by the data user.

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The time series shows the 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) average from the MOD13Q1 data product.
Use the slider below the time series to zoom in and out.

Includes all pixels that have acceptable quality

To view / download these data and other MOD13Q1 products for this site, visit MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices.

For other related products, visit MODIS/VIIRS Fixed Sites Subsets Tool.


ORNL DAAC. 2018. MODIS and VIIRS Land Products Fixed Sites Subsetting and Visualization Tool. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

Read more on how to cite these MODIS products. Data come from NASA’s MODIS instruments installed on satellites Terra and Aqua, which scan the entire Earth’s surface every one to two days.

MODIS NDVI subsetted data is not yet available for this site.

For a complete list of AmeriFlux sites, visit ORNL DAAC's MODIS/VIIRS Fixed Sites Subsets Tool.

Year Publication
2020 Xu, B., Arain, M. A., Black, T. A., Law, B. E., Pastorello, G. Z., Chu, H. (2020) Seasonal Variability Of Forest Sensitivity To Heat And Drought Stresses: A Synthesis Based On Carbon Fluxes From North American Forest Ecosystems, Global Change Biology, 26(2), 901-918.
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350.
2020 Finzi, A. C., Giasson, M., Barker Plotkin, A. A., Aber, J. D., Boose, E. R., Davidson, E. A., Dietze, M. C., Ellison, A. M., Frey, S. D., Goldman, E., Keenan, T. F., Melillo, J. M., Munger, J. W., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Ollinger, S. V., Orwig, D. A., Pederson, N., Richardson, A. D., Savage, K., Tang, J., Thompson, J. R., Williams, C. A., Wofsy, S. C., Zhou, Z., Foster, D. R. (2020) Carbon Budget Of The Harvard Forest Long‐Term Ecological Research Site: Pattern, Process, And Response To Global Change, Ecological Monographs, .
2012 Richardson, A. D., Anderson, R. S., Arain, M. A., Barr, A. G., Bohrer, G., Chen, G., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Davis, K. J., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Dragoni, D., Garrity, S. R., Gough, C. M., Grant, R., Hollinger, D. Y., Margolis, H. A., McCaughey, H., Migliavacca, M., Monson, R. K., Munger, J. W., Poulter, B., Raczka, B. M., Ricciuto, D. M., Sahoo, A. K., Schaefer, K., Tian, H., Vargas, R., Verbeeck, H., Xiao, J., Xue, Y. (2012) Terrestrial Biosphere Models Need Better Representation Of Vegetation Phenology: Results From The North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis, Global Change Biology, 18(2), 566-584.
2013 Barr, A., Richardson, A., Hollinger, D., Papale, D., Arain, M., Black, T., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Fischer, M., Gu, L., Law, B., Margolis, H., McCaughey, J., Munger, J., Oechel, W., Schaeffer, K. (2013) Use Of Change-Point Detection For Friction–Velocity Threshold Evaluation In Eddy-Covariance Studies, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 171-172, 31-45.
2013 Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., Richardson, A. D. (2013) Increase In Forest Water-Use Efficiency As Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Rise, Nature, 499(7458), 324-327.
2014 Matheny, A. M., Bohrer, G., Stoy, P. C., Baker, I. T., Black, A. T., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Gough, C. M., Ivanov, V. Y., Jassal, R. S., Novick, K. A., Schäfer, K. V., Verbeeck, H. (2014) Characterizing The Diurnal Patterns of Errors in The Prediction of Evapotranspiration by Several Land-Surface Models: An Nacp Analysis, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 119(7), 1458-1473.
2015 Wu, Z. Y., Zhang, L., Wang, X. M., Munger, J. W. (2015) A Modified Micrometeorological Gradient Method For Estimating O3 Dry Depositions Over A Forest Canopy, Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 15(13), 7487-7496.
2016 Wang, Y., Tang, X., Yu, L., Hou, X., Munger, J. W. (2016) Comparison Of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange Estimation In A Mixed Temperate Forest Using Field Eddy Covariance And Modis Data, Springerplus, 5(1), .
2016 Ashworth, K., Chung, S. H., McKinney, K. A., Liu, Y., Munger, J. W., Martin, S. T., Steiner, A. L. (2016) Modelling Bidirectional Fluxes Of Methanol And Acetaldehyde With The Forcast Canopy Exchange Model, Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 16(24), 15461-15484.
2017 Antonarakis, A. S., Siqueira, P., Munger, J. W. (2017) Using Multi-Source Data From Lidar, Radar, Imaging Spectroscopy, And National Forest Inventories To Simulate Forest Carbon Fluxes, International Journal Of Remote Sensing, 38(19), 5464-5486.
2017 Clifton, O. E., Fiore, A. M., Munger, J. W., Malyshev, S., Horowitz, L. W., Shevliakova, E., Paulot, F., Murray, L. T., Griffin, K. L. (2017) Interannual Variability In Ozone Removal By A Temperate Deciduous Forest, Geophysical Research Letters, 44(1), 542-552.
2017 Meredith, L. K., Commane, R., Keenan, T. F., Klosterman, S. T., Munger, J. W., Templer, P. H., Tang, J., Wofsy, S. C., Prinn, R. G. (2017) Ecosystem Fluxes Of Hydrogen In A Mid-Latitude Forest Driven By Soil Microorganisms And Plants, Global Change Biology, 23(2), 906-919.
2017 Yang, H., Yang, X., Zhang, Y., Heskel, M. A., Lu, X., Munger, J. W., Sun, S., Tang, J. (2017) Chlorophyll Fluorescence Tracks Seasonal Variations Of Photosynthesis From Leaf To Canopy In A Temperate Forest, Global Change Biology, 23(7), 2874-2886.
2019 Silva, S. J., Heald, C. L., Ravela, S., Mammarella, I., Munger, J. W. (2019) A Deep Learning Parameterization For Ozone Dry Deposition Velocities, Geophysical Research Letters, 46(2), 983-989.
2019 Clifton, O. E., Fiore, A. M., Munger, J. W., Wehr, R. (2019) Spatiotemporal Controls On Observed Daytime Ozone Deposition Velocity Over Northeastern U.S. Forests During Summer, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(10), 5612-5628.
2019 Battle, M. O., Munger, J. W., Conley, M., Sofen, E., Perry, R., Hart, R., Davis, Z., Scheckman, J., Woogerd, J., Graeter, K., Seekins, S., David, S., Carpenter, J. (2019) Atmospheric Measurements Of The Terrestrial O2 : Co2 Exchange Ratio Of A Midlatitude Forest, Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 19(13), 8687-8701.
2019 Guerrieri, R., Belmecheri, S., Ollinger, S. V., Asbjornsen, H., Jennings, K., Xiao, J., Stocker, B. D., Martin, M., Hollinger, D. Y., Bracho-Garrillo, R., Clark, K., Dore, S., Kolb, T., Munger, J. W., Novick, K., Richardson, A. D. (2019) Disentangling The Role Of Photosynthesis And Stomatal Conductance On Rising Forest Water-Use Efficiency, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 116(34), 16909-16914.
2015 Toomey, M., Friedl, M. A., Frolking, S., Hufkens, K., Klosterman, S., Sonnentag, O., Baldocchi, D. D., Bernacchi, C. J., Biraud, S. C., Bohrer, G., Brzostek, E., Burns, S. P., Coursolle, C., Hollinger, D. Y., Margolis, H. A., McCaughey, H., Monson, R. K., Munger, J. W., Pallardy, S., Phillips, R. P., Torn, M. S., Wharton, S., Zeri, M., Richardson, A. D. (2015) Greenness Indices From Digital Cameras Predict The Timing And Seasonal Dynamics Of Canopy-Scale Photosynthesis, Ecological Applications, 25(1), 99-115.
2017 Raczka, B., Biraud, S. C., Ehleringer, J. R., Lai, C., Miller, J. B., Pataki, D. E., Saleska, S. R., Torn, M. S., Vaughn, B. H., Wehr, R., Bowling, D. R. (2017) Does Vapor Pressure Deficit Drive The Seasonality Of δ13C Of The Net Land-Atmosphere Co2 Exchange Across The United States?, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 122(8), 1969-1987.
2019 Sullivan, R. C., Kotamarthi, V. R., Feng, Y. (2019) Recovering Evapotranspiration Trends From Biased CMIP5 Simulations And Sensitivity To Changing Climate Over North America, Journal Of Hydrometeorology, 20(8), 1619-1633.
2019 Sullivan, R. C., Cook, D. R., Ghate, V. P., Kotamarthi, V. R., Feng, Y. (2019) Improved Spatiotemporal Representativeness And Bias Reduction Of Satellite-Based Evapotranspiration Retrievals Via Use Of In Situ Meteorology And Constrained Canopy Surface Resistance, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 124(2), 342-352.
2018 Chu, H., Baldocchi, D. D., Poindexter, C., Abraha, M., Desai, A. R., Bohrer, G., Arain, M. A., Griffis, T., Blanken, P. D., O'Halloran, T. L., Thomas, R. Q., Zhang, Q., Burns, S. P., Frank, J. M., Christian, D., Brown, S., Black, T. A., Gough, C. M., Law, B. E., Lee, X., Chen, J., Reed, D. E., Massman, W. J., Clark, K., Hatfield, J., Prueger, J., Bracho, R., Baker, J. M., Martin, T. A. (2018) Temporal Dynamics Of Aerodynamic Canopy Height Derived From Eddy Covariance Momentum Flux Data Across North American Flux Networks, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9275–9287.
2015 Yue, X., Unger, N., Keenan, T. F., Zhang, X., Vogel, C. S. (2015) Probing The Past 30-Year Phenology Trend Of Us Deciduous Forests, Biogeosciences, 12(15), 4693-4709.
2014 Belmecheri, S., Maxwell, R. S., Taylor, A. H., Davis, K. J., Freeman, K. H., Munger, W. J. (2014) Tree-Ring δ 13c Tracks Flux Tower Ecosystem Productivity Estimates In A Ne Temperate Forest, Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 074011.
2018 Kim, J. H., Hwang, T., Yang, Y., Schaaf, C. L., Boose, E., Munger, J. W. (2018) Warming-Induced Earlier Greenup Leads To Reduced Stream Discharge In A Temperate Mixed Forest Catchment, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123(6), 1960-1975.
2018 Zhang, Q., Phillips, R. P., Manzoni, S., Scott, R. L., Oishi, A. C., Finzi, A., Daly, E., Vargas, R., Novick, K. A. (2018) Changes In Photosynthesis And Soil Moisture Drive The Seasonal Soil Respiration-Temperature Hysteresis Relationship, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 259, 184-195.
2018 Helliker, B. R., Song, X., Goulden, M. L., Clark, K., Bolstad, P., Munger, J. W., Chen, J., Noormets, A., Hollinger, D., Wofsy, S., Martin, T., Baldocchi, D., Euskirchenn, E., Desai, A., Burns, S. P. (2018) Assessing The Interplay Between Canopy Energy Balance And Photosynthesis With Cellulose δ18o: Large-Scale Patterns And Independent Ground-Truthing, Oecologia, .
2018 Kim, J., Hwang, T., Schaaf, C. L., Kljun, N., Munger, J. W. (2018) Seasonal Variation Of Source Contributions To Eddy-Covariance Co 2 Measurements In A Mixed Hardwood-Conifer Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 253-254, 71-83.
2018 Sihi, D, Davidson, E.A., Chen, M, Savage, K.E., Richardson, A.D., Keenan, T.F., Hollinger, D. Y. (2018) Merging a mechanistic enzymatic model of soil heterotrophic respiration into an ecosystem model in two AmeriFlux sites of northeastern USA, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 252, 155-166.
2018 Hayek, M. N., Wehr, R., Longo, M., Hutyra, L. R., Wiedemann, K., Munger, J. W., Bonal, D., Saleska, S. R., Fitzjarrald, D. R., Wofsy, S. C. (2018) A Novel Correction For Biases In Forest Eddy Covariance Carbon Balance, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 250-251, 90-101.
2017 Wehr, R., Commane, R., Munger, J. W., McManus, J. B., Nelson, D. D., Zahniser, M. S., Saleska, S. R., Wofsy, S. C. (2017) Dynamics Of Canopy Stomatal Conductance, Transpiration, And Evaporation In A Temperate Deciduous Forest, Validated By Carbonyl Sulfide Uptake, Biogeosciences, 14(2), 389-401.
2017 Porras, R. C., Hicks Pries, C. E., McFarlane, K. J., Hanson, P. J., Torn, M. S. (2017) Association With Pedogenic Iron And Aluminum: Effects On Soil Organic Carbon Storage And Stability In Four Temperate Forest Soils, Biogeochemistry, 133(3), 333-345.
2013 McFarlane, K. J., Torn, M. S., Hanson, P. J., Porras, R. C., Swanston, C. W., Callaham, M. A., Guilderson, T. P. (2013) Comparison Of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics At Five Temperate Deciduous Forests With Physical Fractionation And Radiocarbon Measurements, Biogeochemistry, 112(1-3), 457-476.
1998 Munger, J. W., Fan, S., Bakwin, P. S., Goulden, M. L., Goldstein, A. H., Colman, A. S., Wofsy, S. C. (1998) Regional Budgets For Nitrogen Oxides From Continental Sources: Variations Of Rates For Oxidation And Deposition With Season And Distance From Source Regions, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 103(D7), 8355-8368.
1993 Wofsy, S. C., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S., Bakwin, P. S., Daube, B. C., Bassow, S. L., Bazzaz, F. A. (1993) Net Exchange Of CO2 In A Mid-Latitude Forest, Science, 260(5112), 1314-1317.
1996 Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S., Daube, B. C., Wofsy, S. C. (1996) Exchange Of Carbon Dioxide By A Deciduous Forest: Response To Interannual Climate Variability, Science, 271(5255), 1576-1578.
2005 Staebler, R. M., Fitzjarrald, D. R. (2005) Measuring Canopy Structure And The Kinematics Of Subcanopy Flows In Two Forests, Journal Of Applied Meteorology, 44(8), 1161-1179.
2001 Barford, C. C., Wofsy, S. C., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Pyle, E. H., Urbanski, S. P., Hutyra, L., Saleska, S. R., Fitzjarrald, D., Moore, K. (2001) Factors Controlling Long- And Short-Term Sequestration Of Atmospheric CO2 In A Mid-Latitude Forest, Science, 294(5547), 1688-1691.
2004 Staebler, R. M., Fitzjarrald, D. R. (2004) Observing Subcanopy CO2 Advection, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 122(3-4), 139-156.
2012 Keenan, T. F., Davidson, E., Moffat, A. M., Munger, W., Richardson, A. D. (2012) Using Model-Data Fusion To Interpret Past Trends, And Quantify Uncertainties In Future Projections, Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Cycling, Global Change Biology, 18(8), 2555-2569.
2007 Urbanski, S., Barford, C., Wofsy, S., Kucharik, C., Pyle, E., Budney, J., McKain, K., Fitzjarrald, D., Czikowsky, M., Munger, J. W. (2007) Factors Controlling CO2 Exchange On Timescales From Hourly To Decadal At Harvard Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research, 112(G2), .
2002 Curtis, P. S., Hanson, P. J., Bolstad, P., Barford, C., Randolph, J., Schmid, H., Wilson, K. B. (2002) Biometric And Eddy-Covariance Based Estimates Of Annual Carbon Storage In Five Eastern North American Deciduous Forests, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 3-19.
2006 Liu, W. H., Bryant, D. M., Hutyra, L. R., Saleska, S. R., Hammond-Pyle, E., Curran, D., Wofsy, S. C. (2006) Woody Debris Contribution To The Carbon Budget Of Selectively Logged And Maturing Mid-Latitude Forests, Oecologia, 148(1), 108-117.
1999 Potosnak, M. J., Wofsy, S. C., Denning, A. S., Conway, T. J., Munger, J. W., Barnes, D. H. (1999) Influence Of Biotic Exchange And Combustion Sources On Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations In New England From Observations At A Forest Flux Tower, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 104(D8), 9561-9569.
1997 Bassow, S. L., Bazzaz, F. A. (1997) Intra- And Inter-Specific Variation In Canopy Photosynthesis In A Mixed Deciduous Forest, Oecologia, 109(4), 507-515.
1998 Goldstein, A. H., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Wofsy, S. C., Geron, C. D. (1998) Seasonal Course Of Isoprene Emissions From A Midlatitude Deciduous Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 103(D23), 31045-31056.
2001 Freedman, J. M., Fitzjarrald, D. R., Moore, K. E., Sakai, R. K. (2001) Boundary Layer Clouds And Vegetation–Atmosphere Feedbacks, Journal Of Climate, 14(2), 180-197.<0180:BLCAVA>2.0.CO;2
1998 Bassow, S. L., Bazzaz, F. A. (1998) How Environmental Conditions Affect Canopy Leaf-Level Photosynthesis In Four Deciduous Tree Species, Ecology, 79(8), 2660-2675.
2006 Horii, C., Munger, J. W., Wofsy, S., Zahniser, M., Nelson, D., McManus, J. B. (2006) Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Concentration And Flux Budgets At A Northeastern U.S. Forest Site, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 136(3-4), 159-174.
1996 Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S., Daube, B. C., Wofsy, S. C. (1996) Measurements Of Carbon Sequestration By Long-Term Eddy Covariance: Methods And A Critical Evaluation Of Accuracy, Global Change Biology, 2(3), 169-182.
2001 Savage, K. E., Davidson, E. A. (2001) Interannual Variation Of Soil Respiration In Two New England Forests, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(2), 337-350.
1996 Moore, K. E., Fitzjarrald, D. R., Sakai, R. K., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Wofsy, S. C. (1996) Seasonal Variation In Radiative And Turbulent Exchange At A Deciduous Forest In Central Massachusetts, Journal Of Applied Meteorology, 35(1), 122-134.<0122:SVIRAT>2.0.CO;2
2010 Phillips, S. C., Varner, R. K., Frolking, S., Munger, J. W., Bubier, J. L., Wofsy, S. C., Crill, P. M. (2010) Interannual, Seasonal, And Diel Variation In Soil Respiration Relative To Ecosystem Respiration At A Wetland To Upland Slope At Harvard Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 115(G2), n/a-n/a.
2016 Wehr, R., Munger, J. W., McManus, J. B., Nelson, D. D., Zahniser, M. S., Davidson, E. A., Wofsy, S. C., Saleska, S. R. (2016) Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration, Nature, 534, 680-683.
2015 Commane, R.C., Meredith, L. K., Baker, I. T., Berry, J. A., Munger, J. W, Montzka, S. A, Templer, P. H., Juice, S. M., Zahniser, M. S., Wofsy, S. C. (2015) Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest, PNAS, 1-7.

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 748m x 748m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am