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Tower_team:
PI: Ankur Desai desai@aos.wisc.edu - University of Wisconsin
FluxContact: Jonathan Thom jthom@ssec.wisc.edu - University of Wisconsin
Lat, Long: 45.8059, -90.0799
Elevation(m): 520.00
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen: Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 4.02
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 787
Flux Species Measured: CO2, H, H2O
Years Data Collected: AmeriFlux: 1999 - Present
Description:
Upland decduous broadleaf forest. Mainly sugar maple, also basswood. Uniform stand atop a very modest hill. Clearcut approximately 80 years ago. Chosen ...
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URL: http://flux.aos.wisc.edu/twiki/bin/view/Main/ChEASData
Research Topics:
The research and science objectives of the Willow Creek site are as follows: 1) Continuously measure the turbulent fluxes of carbon, water vapor, and temperature ...
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Acknowledgment:
Site Photo More Site Images
Image Credit: , //
Copyright preference: Open use
Site Publication More Site Publications

Instructions for DOIs for This Site

When using DOIs for this site, use the publications and acknowledgments listed below.

DOIs

Publications to use for Citations for this Site

Acknowledgements

Resources

This page displays the list of downloads of data for the site {{siteId}}.

NOTE: Version refers to the version of the AmeriFlux BASE-BADM product for the site was downloaded by the user and the download count indicates the number of times the person downloaded that version. The download count indicates the number of times the person downloaded the data.

Year Range
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MODIS NDVI

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index image for this site.

For time series, data download and other MODIS products for this site, visit MODIS cutouts.

Citation

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Citation:

ORNL DAAC. 2008. MODIS Collection 5 Fixed Sites Subsetting and Visualization Tool. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1251

Read more on how to cite these MODIS images. Data come from NASA’s MODIS instruments installed on satellites Terra and Aqua, which scan the entire Earth’s surface every one to two days.

Year Publication
2015 Phillips, C. L., McFarlane, K. J., LaFranchi, B., Desai, A. R., Miller, J. B., Lehman, S. J. (2015) Observations of 14CO2 In Ecosystem Respiration From A Temperate Deciduous Forest In Northern Wisconsin, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120(4), 600-616.
2003 Scott Denning, A., Nicholls, M., Prihodko, L., Baker, I., Vidale, P., Davis, K., Bakwin, P. (2003) Simulated Variations In Atmospheric CO2 Over A Wisconsin Forest Using A Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1241-1250.
2004 Cook, B. D., Davis, K. J., Wang, W., Desai, A., Berger, B. W., Teclaw, R. M., Martin, J. G., Bolstad, P. V., Bakwin, P. S., Yi, C., Heilman, W. (2004) Carbon Exchange And Venting Anomalies In An Upland Deciduous Forest In Northern Wisconsin, USA, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 126(3-4), 271-295.
2005 Martin, J. G., Bolstad, P. V. (2005) Annual Soil Respiration In Broadleaf Forests Of Northern Wisconsin: Influence Of Moisture And Site Biological, Chemical, And Physical Characteristics, Biogeochemistry, 73(1), 149-182.
2010 Desai, A.R. (2010) Climatic And Phenological Controls On Coherent Regional Interannual Variability Of Carbon Dioxide Flux In A Heterogeneous Landscape, Journal Of Geophysical Research, 115(G00J02), n/a-n/a.
2004 Bolstad, P. V., Davis, K. J., Martin, J., Cook, B. D., Wang, W. (2004) Component And Whole-System Respiration Fluxes In Northern Deciduous Forests, Tree Physiology, 24(5), 493-504.
2003 Davis, K. J., Bakwin, P. S., Yi, C., Berger, B. W., Zhao, C., Teclaw, R. M., Isebrands, J. G. (2003) The Annual Cycles Of CO2 And H2O Exchange Over A Northern Mixed Forest As Observed From A Very Tall Tower, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1278-1293.
2003 Werner, C., Davis, K., Bakwin, P., Yi, C., Hurst, D., Lock, L. (2003) Regional-Scale Measurements Of CH4 Exchange From A Tall Tower Over A Mixed Temperate/Boreal Lowland And Wetland Forest, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1251-1261.
2002 Curtis, P. S., Hanson, P. J., Bolstad, P., Barford, C., Randolph, J., Schmid, H., Wilson, K. B. (2002) Biometric And Eddy-Covariance Based Estimates Of Annual Carbon Storage In Five Eastern North American Deciduous Forests, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 3-19.
2005 Hibbard, K. A., Law, B. E., Reichstein, M., Sulzman, J. (2005) An Analysis Of Soil Respiration Across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems, Biogeochemistry, 73(1), 29-70.
2004 Bakwin, P. S., Davis, K. J., Yi, C., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Haszpra, L., Barcza, Z. (2004) Regional Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From Mixing Ratio Data, Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 56(4), 301-311.
2008 Desai, A. R., Noormets, A., Bolstad, P. V., Chen, J., Cook, B. D., Davis, K. J., Euskirchen, E. S., Gough, C., Martin, J. G., Ricciuto, D. M., Schmid, H. P., Tang, J., Wang, W. (2008) Influence Of Vegetation And Seasonal Forcing On Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Across The Upper Midwest, Usa: Implications For Regional Scaling, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 148(2), 288-308.
2004 Yi, C., Davis, K. J., Bakwin, P. S., Denning, A. S., Zhang, N., Desai, A., Lin, J. C., Gerbig, C. (2004) Observed Covariance Between Ecosystem Carbon Exchange And Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics At A Site In Northern Wisconsin, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D8), n/a-n/a.
2001 Potter, B. E., Teclaw, R. M., Zasada, J. C. (2001) The Impact Of Forest Structure On Near-Ground Temperatures During Two Years Of Contrasting Temperature Extremes, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 106(4), 331-336.
2004 Yi, C., Li, R., Bakwin, P. S., Desai, A., Ricciuto, D. M., Burns, S. P., Turnipseed, A. A., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Wilson, K., Monson, R. K. (2004) A Nonparametric Method For Separating Photosynthesis And Respiration Components In CO2 Flux Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 31(17), n/a-n/a.
2005 Desai, A. R., Bolstad, P. V., Cook, B. D., Davis, K. J., Carey, E. V. (2005) Comparing Net Ecosystem Exchange Of Carbon Dioxide Between An Old-Growth And Mature Forest In The Upper Midwest, Usa, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 128(1-2), 33-55.
2013 Phillips, C., McFarlane, K.J., Risk, D., Desai, A.R. (2013) Biological And Physical Influences On Soil 14CO2 Seasonal Dynamics In A Temperate Hardwood Forest, Biogeosciences, 10(12), 7999-8012.
2003 Baker, I., Denning, A. S., Hanan, N., Prihodko, L., Uliasz, M., Vidale, P., Davis, K., Bakwin, P. (2003) Simulated And Observed Fluxes Of Sensible And Latent Heat And CO2 At The WLEF-TV Tower Using SiB2.5, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1262-1277.

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 707m x 707m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    Utility
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am