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Tower_team:
PI: Ankur Desai desai@aos.wisc.edu - University of Wisconsin
FluxContact: Jonathan Thom jthom@ssec.wisc.edu - University of Wisconsin
Lat, Long: 45.9459, -90.2723
Elevation(m): 470.00
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: MF (Mixed Forests)
Climate Koeppen: Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 4.33
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 823
Flux Species Measured: CH4, CO2, H, H2O
Years Data Collected: AmeriFlux: 1996 - Present
Description:
The flux footprint encompasses a highly heterogeneous landscape of upland forests and wetlands (forested and nonforested). The forests are mainly deciduous ...
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URL: http://flux.aos.wisc.edu/twiki/bin/view/Main/ChEASData
Research Topics:
The research objectives of the 'Observations of carbon dioxide mixing ratios and surface exchange fluxes at WLEF' project include the following: 1) Examine ...
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Acknowledgment:
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Instructions for DOIs for This Site

When using DOIs for this site, use the publications and acknowledgments listed below.

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Publications to use for Citations for this Site

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Resources

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NOTE: Version refers to the version of the AmeriFlux BASE-BADM product for the site was downloaded by the user and the download count indicates the number of times the person downloaded that version. The download count indicates the number of times the person downloaded the data.

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MODIS NDVI

View timeseries and download data for 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for this site.

For other MODIS and related products for this site, visit MODIS/VIIRS Subsets.

Citation:

ORNL DAAC. 2018. MODIS and VIIRS Land Products Fixed Sites Subsetting and Visualization Tool. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1567

Read more on how to cite these MODIS products. Data come from NASA’s MODIS instruments installed on satellites Terra and Aqua, which scan the entire Earth’s surface every one to two days.

Year Publication
2006 Richardson, A. D., Hollinger, D. Y., Burba, G. G., Davis, K. J., Flanagan, L. B., Katul, G. G., William Munger, J., Ricciuto, D. M., Stoy, P. C., Suyker, A. E., Verma, S. B., Wofsy, S. C. (2006) A Multi-Site Analysis Of Random Error In Tower-Based Measurements Of Carbon And Energy Fluxes, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 136(1-2), 1-18.
2003 Scott Denning, A., Nicholls, M., Prihodko, L., Baker, I., Vidale, P., Davis, K., Bakwin, P. (2003) Simulated Variations In Atmospheric CO2 Over A Wisconsin Forest Using A Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1241-1250.
2004 Cook, B. D., Davis, K. J., Wang, W., Desai, A., Berger, B. W., Teclaw, R. M., Martin, J. G., Bolstad, P. V., Bakwin, P. S., Yi, C., Heilman, W. (2004) Carbon Exchange And Venting Anomalies In An Upland Deciduous Forest In Northern Wisconsin, USA, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 126(3-4), 271-295.
2015 Desai, A. R., Xu, K., Tian, H., Weishampel, P., Thom, J., Baumann, D., Andrews, A. E., Cook, B. D., King, J. Y., Kolka, R. (2015) Landscape-Level Terrestrial Methane Flux Observed From A Very Tall Tower, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 201, 61-75.
2014 Andrews, A.E., Kofler, J.D., Trudeau, M.E., Williams, J.C., Neff, D.H., Masarie, K.A., Chao, D.Y., Kitzis, D.R., Novelli, P.C., Zhao, C.L., Dlugokencky, E.J., Lang, P.M., Crotwell, M.J., Fischer, M.L., Parker, M.J., Lee, J.T., Baumann, D.D., Desai, A.R., Stanier, C.O., de Wekker, S.F.J., Wolfe, D.E., Munger, J.W., Tans, P.P. (2014) CO2, CO, And CH4 Measurements From Tall Towers In The NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: Instrumentation, Uncertainty Analysis, And Recommendations For Future High-Accuracy Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Efforts, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7(2), 647-687.
2014 Pressel, K. G., Collins, W. D., Desai, A. R. (2014) The Spatial Scale Dependence Of Water Vapor Variability Inferred From Observations From A Very Tall Tower, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(16), 9822-9837.
2010 Desai, A.R. (2010) Climatic And Phenological Controls On Coherent Regional Interannual Variability Of Carbon Dioxide Flux In A Heterogeneous Landscape, Journal Of Geophysical Research, 115(G00J02), n/a-n/a.
2004 Hurwitz, M. D., Ricciuto, D. M., Bakwin, P. S., Davis, K. J., Wang, W., Yi, C., Butler, M. P. (2004) Transport Of Carbon Dioxide In The Presence Of Storm Systems Over A Northern Wisconsin Forest, Journal Of The Atmospheric Sciences, 61(5), 607-618.
2003 Davis, K. J., Bakwin, P. S., Yi, C., Berger, B. W., Zhao, C., Teclaw, R. M., Isebrands, J. G. (2003) The Annual Cycles Of CO2 And H2O Exchange Over A Northern Mixed Forest As Observed From A Very Tall Tower, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1278-1293.
2003 Werner, C., Davis, K., Bakwin, P., Yi, C., Hurst, D., Lock, L. (2003) Regional-Scale Measurements Of CH4 Exchange From A Tall Tower Over A Mixed Temperate/Boreal Lowland And Wetland Forest, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1251-1261.
2012 (2012) The Imprint Of Surface Fluxes And Transport On Variations In Total Column Carbon Dioxide, Biogeosciences, 9(3), 875-891.
2015 Petrescu, A. M., Lohila, A., Tuovinen, J., Baldocchi, D. D., Desai, A. R., Roulet, N. T., Vesala, T., Dolman, A. J., Oechel, W. C., Marcolla, B., Friborg, T., Rinne, J., Matthes, J. H., Merbold, L., Meijide, A., Kiely, G., Sottocornola, M., Sachs, T., Zona, D., Varlagin, A., Lai, D. Y., Veenendaal, E., Parmentier, F. W., Skiba, U., Lund, M., Hensen, A., van Huissteden, J., Flanagan, L. B., Shurpali, N. J., Grünwald, T., Humphreys, E. R., Jackowicz-Korczyński, M., Aurela, M. A., Laurila, T., Grüning, C., Corradi, C. A., Schrier-Uijl, A. P., Christensen, T. R., Tamstorf, M. P., Mastepanov, M., Martikainen, P. J., Verma, S. B., Bernhofer, C., Cescatti, A. (2015) The Uncertain Climate Footprint Of Wetlands Under Human Pressure, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 112(15), 4594-4599.
2011 Vasys, V. N., Desai, A. R., McKinley, G. A., Bennington, V., Michalak, A. M., Andrews, A. E. (2011) The Influence Of Carbon Exchange Of A Large Lake On Regional Tracer-Transport Inversions: Results From Lake Superior, Environmental Research Letters, 6(3), n/a-n/a.
2004 Bakwin, P. S., Davis, K. J., Yi, C., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Haszpra, L., Barcza, Z. (2004) Regional Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From Mixing Ratio Data, Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 56(4), 301-311.
2002 Mackay, D. S., Ahl, D. E., Ewers, B. E., Gower, S. T., Burrows, S. N., Samanta, S., Davis, K. J. (2002) Effects Of Aggregated Classifications Of Forest Composition On Estimates Of Evapotranspiration In A Northern Wisconsin Forest, Global Change Biology, 8(12), 1253-1265.
2007 Desai, A.R., Moorcroft, P.R., Bolstad, P.V., and Davis, K.J. (2007) Regional Carbon Fluxes From An Observationally Constrained Dynamic Ecosystem Model: Impacts Of Disturbance, CO2 Fertilization, And Heterogeneous Land Cover, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 112(G1), n/a-n/a.
2010 Desai, A. R., Helliker, B. R., Moorcroft, P. R., Andrews, A. E., Berry, J. A. (2010) Climatic Controls Of Interannual Variability In Regional Carbon Fluxes From Top-Down And Bottom-Up Perspectives, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 115(G2), n/a-n/a.
2008 Desai, A. R., Noormets, A., Bolstad, P. V., Chen, J., Cook, B. D., Davis, K. J., Euskirchen, E. S., Gough, C., Martin, J. G., Ricciuto, D. M., Schmid, H. P., Tang, J., Wang, W. (2008) Influence Of Vegetation And Seasonal Forcing On Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Across The Upper Midwest, Usa: Implications For Regional Scaling, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 148(2), 288-308.
2001 Berger, B. W., Davis, K. J., Yi, C., Bakwin, P. S., Zhao, C. L. (2001) Long-Term Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From A Very Tall Tower In A Northern Forest: Flux Measurement Methodology, Journal Of Atmospheric And Oceanic Technology, 18(4), 529-542.
2004 Yi, C., Davis, K. J., Bakwin, P. S., Denning, A. S., Zhang, N., Desai, A., Lin, J. C., Gerbig, C. (2004) Observed Covariance Between Ecosystem Carbon Exchange And Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics At A Site In Northern Wisconsin, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D8), n/a-n/a.
2004 Yi, C., Li, R., Bakwin, P. S., Desai, A., Ricciuto, D. M., Burns, S. P., Turnipseed, A. A., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Wilson, K., Monson, R. K. (2004) A Nonparametric Method For Separating Photosynthesis And Respiration Components In CO2 Flux Measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 31(17), n/a-n/a.
2001 Yi, C., Davis, K. J., Berger, B. W., Bakwin, P. S. (2001) Long-Term Observations Of The Dynamics Of The Continental Planetary Boundary Layer, Journal Of The Atmospheric Sciences, 58(10), 1288-1299.
2014 Desai, A. R. (2014) Influence And Predictive Capacity Of Climate Anomalies On Daily To Decadal Extremes In Canopy Photosynthesis, Photosynthesis Research, 119(1-2), 31-47.
2003 Baker, I., Denning, A. S., Hanan, N., Prihodko, L., Uliasz, M., Vidale, P., Davis, K., Bakwin, P. (2003) Simulated And Observed Fluxes Of Sensible And Latent Heat And CO2 At The WLEF-TV Tower Using SiB2.5, Global Change Biology, 9(9), 1262-1277.
2016 Zscheischler, J., Fatichi, S., Wolf, S., Blanken, P., Bohrer, G., Clark, K., Desai, A., Hollinger, D., Keenan, T., Novick, K.A., Seneviratne, S.I. (2016) Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 121(8), 2186-2198.
2016 Wolf, S., Keenan, T.F., Fisher, J.B., Baldocchi, D.D., Desai, A.R., Richardson, A.D., Scott, R.L., Law, B.E., Litvak, M.E., Brunsell, N.A., Peters, W., van der Laan-Luijkx, I.T. (2016) Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(21), 5880-5885.
2015 Desai, A.R., Xu, K., Tian, H., Weishampel, P., Thom, J., Baumann, D., Andrews, A.E., Cook, B.D., King, J.Y., Kolka, R. (2015) Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 201, 61-75.

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 706m x 706m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    Utility
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am