The foliage in a fully-leafed deciduous forest canopy is clumped. Consequently, theory indicates that the probability of beam penetration will be estimated more accurately with a model based on the negative binomial distribution than with a model based on the Poisson distribution, incorporating an assumption of a spherical leaf inclination angle distribution. Flux densities of… More

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Observed responses of upland-oak vegetation of the eastern deciduous hardwood forest to changing CO2, temperature, precipitation and tropospheric ozone (O3) were derived from field studies and interpreted with a stand-level model for an 11-year range of environmental variation upon which scenarios of future environmental change were imposed. Scenarios for the year 2100 included elevated [CO2]… More

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Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity. The carbon balance of forests is determined by a number of component processes of carbon acquisition and carbon loss, and a small shift in the magnitude of these processes would have a large impact on the global carbon cycle. In… More

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The scaling of CO2 and water vapour transfer from leaf to canopy dimensions was achieved by integrating mechanistic models for physiological (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and soil/root and bole respiration) and micrometeorological (radiative transfer, turbulent transfer and surface energy exchanges) processes. The main objectives of this paper are to describe a canopy photosynthesis and evaporation model… More

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Atmospheric sources contributed significantly to the annual flux of trace metals and sulfate to the forest floor of Walker Branch Watershed, a forested catchment in the southeastern United States. Atmospheric deposition supplied from 14% (Mn) to≈40% (Zn, Cd, So4=) to 99% (Pb) of the annual flux to the forest floor; the remainder was attributable to… More

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Temporal trends in photosynthetic capacity are a critical factorin determining the seasonality and magnitude of ecosystem carbonfluxes. At a mixed deciduous forest in the south-eastern United States (Walker Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, TN, USA), we independently measured seasonal trends in photosynthetic capacity (using single-leaf gas exchange techniques) and the whole-canopycarbon flux (using the eddy covariance… More

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An intensive investigation of particulate sulfur fluxes to a deciduous forest was conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during May 1983, as part of a multilaboratory program to study the dry deposition of airborne trace gases and aerosols to vegetated surfaces. At this time, the leaf area was approximately 50% of the maximum and was rapidly… More

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In the 1981 water year, bulk precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute H2SO4, and SO42-was the dominant anion in tbroughfall and soil leachates in two eastern Tennessee deciduous forests. Ecosystem inputs of SO42-, which included dry deposition of forest canopies, may have been up to 40% greater than input estimates based on atmospheric deposition… More

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Ecologists are expected to play an important role in future studies of the biosphere/atmosphere exchange of materials associated with the major biogeochemical cycles and climate. Most studies of material exchange reported in the ecological literature have relied on chamber techniques. Micrometeorological techniques provide an alternative means of measuring these exchange rates and are expected to… More

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