The components of the surface energy balance were measured for 3 years over a broadleaved deciduous forest using the eddy covariance technique. Within years, the magnitude and distribution of fluxes was controlled by seasonal changes in solar radiation, drought, as well as leaf emergence and senescence. Evapotranspiration increased by a factor greater than five (from… More

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Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water and energy between a temperate deciduous forest and the atmosphere were quantified across time scales of hours, days, seasons, years and decades. This exercise was performed using stand-level eddy covariance flux measurements and a biophysical model, CANOAK. The CANOAK model was tested with measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor and… More

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Atmospheric deposition during the growing season contributes one-third or more of the estimated total flux of lead, zinc, and cadium from the forest canopy to soils beneath an oak stand in the Tennessee Valley but less than 10 percent of the flux of manganese. The ratio of the wet to dry deposition flux to the… More

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The energy balance components were measured above the ground surface of a temperate deciduous forest over an annual cycle using the eddy covariance technique. Over a year, the net radiation at the forest floor was 21.5% of that above the canopy, but this proportion was not constant, primarily because of the distinct phenological stages separated… More

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How eco-physiological, biogeochemical and micrometeorological theory can be used to compute biosphere–atmosphere, trace gas exchange rates is discussed within the framework of a process model. The accuracy of the theory is tested by comparing computations of mass and energy flux densities (water vapor, sensible heat, CO2 and ozone) against eddy covariance measurements over five distinct… More

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A numerical model that simulates the radiation regime inside a fully leafed and leafless deciduous forest canopy is discussed and tested. The model incorporates features which account for the vertical variation in leaf inclination angles and penumbral effects; these features have been experimentally shown to significantly influence the radiation regime in a deciduous forest. This… More

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