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Tower_team:
PI: Kim Novick knovick@indiana.edu - Indiana University
PI: Rich Phillips rpp6@indiana.edu - Indiana University
BADMContact: Mike Voyles mpvoyles@indiana.edu - Indiana University
Technician: Steven Scott stlscott@indiana.edu - Indiana University
Lat, Long: 39.3232, -86.4131
Elevation(m): 275
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux, Phenocam
Vegetation IGBP: DBF (Deciduous Broadleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Consists of broadleaf tree communities with an annual cycle of leaf-on and leaf-off periods.)
Climate Koeppen: Cfa (Humid Subtropical: mild with no dry season, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 10.85
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 1032
Flux Species Measured: CO2, H, H2O
Years Data Collected: 1999 - Present
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 1999 - 2021   Data Citation

AmeriFlux FLUXNET 1999 - 2020   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
Description:
Owned by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), the Morgan Monroe State Forest, the site's namesake, is operated thanks to the long-term agreement ...
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URL: http://www.indiana.edu/~co2/
Research Topics:
1) Measure current CO2 fluxes and atmospheric controls for a deciduous forest ecosystem in the Midwest. 2) Develop, evaluate, and assess methods to scale-up ...
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Acknowledgment: AmeriFlux Management Project
Site Tasks
  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
Site Photo More Site Images
US-MMS flux tower, photo by Steve Scott.
Image Credit: Steve Scott, 09/19/2014
Copyright preference: Open use
Site Publication More Site Publications
Roman, D. T., Novick, K. A., Brzostek, E. R., Dragoni, D., Rahman, F., Phillips, R. P. 2015. The Role Of Isohydric And Anisohydric Species In Determining Ecosystem-Scale Response To Severe Drought, Oecologia, 179:3, 641-654.

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-MMS data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if US-MMS data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE: https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1246080
    Citation: Kim Novick, Rich Phillips (2021), AmeriFlux BASE US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest, Ver. 20-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset). https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1246080
  • AmeriFlux FLUXNET: https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1854369
    Citation: Kim Novick, Rich Phillips (2022), AmeriFlux FLUXNET-1F US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest, Ver. 3-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset). https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1854369

Find global FLUXNET datasets, like FLUXNET2015 and FLUXNET-CH4, and their citation information at fluxnet.org.

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization

Acknowledgements

  • AmeriFlux Management Project

Resources

This page displays the list of downloads of data for the site {{siteId}}.

Note: Results are the number of downloads to distinct data users. The Download Count column indicates the number of times the data user downloaded the data. The Version column refers to the version of the data product for the site that was downloaded by the data user.

Year Range

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MODIS NDVI

The time series shows the 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) average from the MOD13Q1 data product.
Use the slider below the time series to zoom in and out.

Includes all pixels that have acceptable quality

To view / download these data and other MOD13Q1 products for this site, visit MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices.

For other related products, visit MODIS/VIIRS Fixed Sites Subsets Tool.

Citation:

ORNL DAAC. 2018. MODIS and VIIRS Land Products Fixed Sites Subsetting and Visualization Tool. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1567

Read more on how to cite these MODIS products. Data come from NASA’s MODIS instruments installed on satellites Terra and Aqua, which scan the entire Earth’s surface every one to two days.

MODIS NDVI subsetted data is not yet available for this site.

For a complete list of AmeriFlux sites, visit ORNL DAAC's MODIS/VIIRS Fixed Sites Subsets Tool.

Year Publication
2020 Zhang, Q., Barnes, M., Benson, M., Burakowski, E., Oishi, A. C., Ouimette, A., Sanders‐DeMott, R., Stoy, P. C., Wenzel, M., Xiong, L., Yi, K., Novick, K. A. (2020) Reforestation And Surface Cooling In Temperate Zones: Mechanisms And Implications, Global Change Biology, 26(6), 3384-3401. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15069
2020 Xu, B., Arain, M. A., Black, T. A., Law, B. E., Pastorello, G. Z., Chu, H. (2020) Seasonal Variability Of Forest Sensitivity To Heat And Drought Stresses: A Synthesis Based On Carbon Fluxes From North American Forest Ecosystems, Global Change Biology, 26(2), 901-918. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14843
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108350
2019 Novick, K. A., Konings, A. G., Gentine, P. (2019) Beyond Soil Water Potential: An Expanded View On Isohydricity Including Land–Atmosphere Interactions And Phenology, Plant, Cell & Environment, 42(6), 1802-1815. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13517
2019 Kannenberg, S. A., Novick, K. A., Alexander, M. R., Maxwell, J. T., Moore, D. J., Phillips, R. P., Anderegg, W. R. (2019) Linking Drought Legacy Effects Across Scales: From Leaves To Tree Rings To Ecosystems, Global Change Biology, 25(9), 2978-2992. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14710
2019 Zhang, Q., Ficklin, D. L., Manzoni, S., Wang, L., Way, D., Phillips, R. P., Novick, K. A. (2019) Response Of Ecosystem Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency And Gross Primary Productivity To Rising Vapor Pressure Deficit, Environmental Research Letters, 14(7), 074023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab2603
2019 Yi, K., Maxwell, J. T., Wenzel, M. K., Roman, D. T., Sauer, P. E., Phillips, R. P., Novick, K. A. (2019) Linking Variation In Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency To Isohydricity: A Comparison At Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales, New Phytologist, 221(1), 195-208. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15384
2017 Yi, K., Dragoni, D., Phillips, R. P., Roman, D. T., Novick, K. A. (2017) Dynamics Of Stem Water Uptake Among Isohydric And Anisohydric Species Experiencing A Severe Drought, Tree Physiology, . https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpw126
2015 Roman, D. T., Novick, K. A., Brzostek, E. R., Dragoni, D., Rahman, F., Phillips, R. P. (2015) The Role Of Isohydric And Anisohydric Species In Determining Ecosystem-Scale Response To Severe Drought, Oecologia, 179(3), 641-654. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-015-3380-9
2016 Sulman, B.N., Roman, D.T., Scanlon, T.M., Wang, L. and Novick, K.A (2016) Comparing methods for partitioning a decade of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in a temperate fores, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 226-227, 229-245.
2016 Sulman, B.N., Roman, D.T., Yi, K., Wang, L., Phillips, R.P. and Novick, K.A (2016) High atmospheric demand for water can limit forest carbon uptake and transpiration as severely as dry soil., Geophysical Research Letters, 43(18), 9686-9695.
2017 Yi, K., Dragoni, D., Phillips, R. P., Roman, D. T., Novick, K. A. (2017) Dynamics Of Stem Water Uptake Among Isohydric And Anisohydric Species Experiencing A Severe Drought, Tree Physiology, . https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpw126
2016 Novick, K. A., Ficklin, D. L., Stoy, P. C., Williams, C. A., Bohrer, G., Oishi, A., Papuga, S. A., Blanken, P. D., Noormets, A., Sulman, B. N., Scott, R. L., Wang, L., Phillips, R. P. (2016) The Increasing Importance Of Atmospheric Demand For Ecosystem Water And Carbon Fluxes, Nature Climate Change, 6(11), 1023-1027. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3114
2012 Richardson, A. D., Anderson, R. S., Arain, M. A., Barr, A. G., Bohrer, G., Chen, G., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Davis, K. J., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Dragoni, D., Garrity, S. R., Gough, C. M., Grant, R., Hollinger, D. Y., Margolis, H. A., McCaughey, H., Migliavacca, M., Monson, R. K., Munger, J. W., Poulter, B., Raczka, B. M., Ricciuto, D. M., Sahoo, A. K., Schaefer, K., Tian, H., Vargas, R., Verbeeck, H., Xiao, J., Xue, Y. (2012) Terrestrial Biosphere Models Need Better Representation Of Vegetation Phenology: Results From The North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis, Global Change Biology, 18(2), 566-584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02562.x
2013 Barr, A., Richardson, A., Hollinger, D., Papale, D., Arain, M., Black, T., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Fischer, M., Gu, L., Law, B., Margolis, H., McCaughey, J., Munger, J., Oechel, W., Schaeffer, K. (2013) Use Of Change-Point Detection For Friction–Velocity Threshold Evaluation In Eddy-Covariance Studies, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 171-172, 31-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.11.023
2013 Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., Richardson, A. D. (2013) Increase In Forest Water-Use Efficiency As Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Rise, Nature, 499(7458), 324-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12291
2014 Matheny, A. M., Bohrer, G., Stoy, P. C., Baker, I. T., Black, A. T., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Gough, C. M., Ivanov, V. Y., Jassal, R. S., Novick, K. A., Schäfer, K. V., Verbeeck, H. (2014) Characterizing The Diurnal Patterns of Errors in The Prediction of Evapotranspiration by Several Land-Surface Models: An Nacp Analysis, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 119(7), 1458-1473. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JG002623
2019 Guerrieri, R., Belmecheri, S., Ollinger, S. V., Asbjornsen, H., Jennings, K., Xiao, J., Stocker, B. D., Martin, M., Hollinger, D. Y., Bracho-Garrillo, R., Clark, K., Dore, S., Kolb, T., Munger, J. W., Novick, K., Richardson, A. D. (2019) Disentangling The Role Of Photosynthesis And Stomatal Conductance On Rising Forest Water-Use Efficiency, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 116(34), 16909-16914. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905912116
2015 Toomey, M., Friedl, M. A., Frolking, S., Hufkens, K., Klosterman, S., Sonnentag, O., Baldocchi, D. D., Bernacchi, C. J., Biraud, S. C., Bohrer, G., Brzostek, E., Burns, S. P., Coursolle, C., Hollinger, D. Y., Margolis, H. A., McCaughey, H., Monson, R. K., Munger, J. W., Pallardy, S., Phillips, R. P., Torn, M. S., Wharton, S., Zeri, M., Richardson, A. D. (2015) Greenness Indices From Digital Cameras Predict The Timing And Seasonal Dynamics Of Canopy-Scale Photosynthesis, Ecological Applications, 25(1), 99-115. https://doi.org/http://doi.org/10.1890/14-0005.1
2019 Sullivan, R. C., Kotamarthi, V. R., Feng, Y. (2019) Recovering Evapotranspiration Trends From Biased CMIP5 Simulations And Sensitivity To Changing Climate Over North America, Journal Of Hydrometeorology, 20(8), 1619-1633. https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-18-0259.1
2019 Sullivan, R. C., Cook, D. R., Ghate, V. P., Kotamarthi, V. R., Feng, Y. (2019) Improved Spatiotemporal Representativeness And Bias Reduction Of Satellite-Based Evapotranspiration Retrievals Via Use Of In Situ Meteorology And Constrained Canopy Surface Resistance, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 124(2), 342-352. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JG004744
2018 Baldocchi, D., Penuelas, J. (2018) The Physics And Ecology Of Mining Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere By Ecosystems, Global Change Biology, . https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14559
2018 Chu, H., Baldocchi, D. D., Poindexter, C., Abraha, M., Desai, A. R., Bohrer, G., Arain, M. A., Griffis, T., Blanken, P. D., O'Halloran, T. L., Thomas, R. Q., Zhang, Q., Burns, S. P., Frank, J. M., Christian, D., Brown, S., Black, T. A., Gough, C. M., Law, B. E., Lee, X., Chen, J., Reed, D. E., Massman, W. J., Clark, K., Hatfield, J., Prueger, J., Bracho, R., Baker, J. M., Martin, T. A. (2018) Temporal Dynamics Of Aerodynamic Canopy Height Derived From Eddy Covariance Momentum Flux Data Across North American Flux Networks, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9275–9287. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079306
2015 Yue, X., Unger, N., Keenan, T. F., Zhang, X., Vogel, C. S. (2015) Probing The Past 30-Year Phenology Trend Of Us Deciduous Forests, Biogeosciences, 12(15), 4693-4709. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-4693-2015
2018 Zhang, Q., Phillips, R. P., Manzoni, S., Scott, R. L., Oishi, A. C., Finzi, A., Daly, E., Vargas, R., Novick, K. A. (2018) Changes In Photosynthesis And Soil Moisture Drive The Seasonal Soil Respiration-Temperature Hysteresis Relationship, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 259, 184-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.05.005
2015 Dennis Baldocchi, Cove Sturtevant (2015) Does day and night sampling reduce spurious correlation between canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration?, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 207, 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.03.010
2002 Davidson, E., Savage, K., Bolstad, P., Clark, D., Curtis, P., Ellsworth, D., Hanson, P., Law, B., Luo, Y., Pregitzer, K., Randolph, J., Zak, D. (2002) Belowground Carbon Allocation In Forests Estimated From Litterfall And IRGA-Based Soil Respiration Measurements, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1923(02)00101-6
2001 Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, C., Davis, K., Evans, R., Fuentes, J., Goldstein, A., Katul, G., Law, B., Lee, X., Malhi, Y., Meyers, T., Munger, W., Oechel, W., Paw, K. T., Pilegaard, K., Schmid, H. P., Valentini, R., Verma, S., Vesala, T., Wilson, K., Wofsy, S. (2001) FLUXNET: A New Tool To Study The Temporal And Spatial Variability Of Ecosystem–Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, And Energy Flux Densities, Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 82(11), 2415-2434. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<2415:FANTTS>2.3.CO;2
2005 Sims, D. A., Rahman, A. F., Cordova, V. D., Baldocchi, D. D., Flanagan, L. B., Goldstein, A. H., Hollinger, D. Y., Misson, L., Monson, R. K., Schmid, H. P., Wofsy, S. C., Xu, L. (2005) Midday Values Of Gross CO2 Flux And Light Use Efficiency During Satellite Overpasses Can Be Used To Directly Estimate Eight-Day Mean Flux, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 131(1-2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.04.006
2004 Oliphant, A., Grimmond, C., Zutter, H., Schmid, H., Su, H., Scott, S., Offerle, B., Randolph, J., Ehman, J. (2004) Heat Storage And Energy Balance Fluxes For A Temperate Deciduous Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 126(3-4), 185-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.07.003
2002 Ehman, J. L., Schmid, H. P., Grimmond, C. S., Randolph, J. C., Hanson, P. J., Wayson, C. A., Cropley, F. D. (2002) An Initial Intercomparison Of Micrometeorological And Ecological Inventory Estimates Of Carbon Exchange In A Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest, Global Change Biology, 8(6), 575-589. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00492.x
2005 Baldocchi, D. D., Black, T. A., Curtis, P. S., Falge, E., Fuentes, J. D., Granier, A., Gu, L., Knohl, A., Lee, X., Pilegaard, K., Schmid, H. P., Valentini, R., Wilson, K., Wofsy, S., Xu, L., Yamamoto, S. (2005) Predicting The Onset Of Net Carbon Uptake By Deciduous Forests With Soil Temperature And Climate Data: A Synthesis Of FLUXNET Data, International Journal Of Biometeorology, 49(6), 377-387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-005-0256-4
2002 Curtis, P. S., Hanson, P. J., Bolstad, P., Barford, C., Randolph, J., Schmid, H., Wilson, K. B. (2002) Biometric And Eddy-Covariance Based Estimates Of Annual Carbon Storage In Five Eastern North American Deciduous Forests, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1923(02)00099-0
2000 Schmid, H., Grimmond, C.S.B., Cropley, F., Offerle, B., Su, H.B. (2000) Measurements Of CO2 And Energy Fluxes Over A Mixed Hardwood Forest In The Mid-Western United States, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 103(4), 357-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1923(00)00140-4
1999 Pryor, S. C., Barthelmie, R. J., Jensen, B. (1999) Nitrogen Dry Deposition At An Ameriflux Site In A Hardwood Forest In The Midwest, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 691-694. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999gl900066
2004 Rahman, A. F., Cordova, V. D., Gamon, J. A., Schmid, H. P., Sims, D. A. (2004) Potential Of MODIS Ocean Bands For Estimating CO2flux From Terrestrial Vegetation: A Novel Approach, Geophysical Research Letters, 31(10), n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl019778
2011 DRAGONI, D., SCHMID, H. P., WAYSON, C. A., POTTER, H., GRIMMOND, C. S., RANDOLPH, J. C. (2011) Evidence Of Increased Net Ecosystem Productivity Associated With A Longer Vegetated Season In A Deciduous Forest In South-Central Indiana, Usa, Global Change Biology, 17(2), 886-897. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02281.x
2016 Zscheischler, J., Fatichi, S., Wolf, S., Blanken, P., Bohrer, G., Clark, K., Desai, A., Hollinger, D., Keenan, T., Novick, K.A., Seneviratne, S.I. (2016) Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 121(8), 2186-2198. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JG003503
2016 Wolf, S., Keenan, T.F., Fisher, J.B., Baldocchi, D.D., Desai, A.R., Richardson, A.D., Scott, R.L., Law, B.E., Litvak, M.E., Brunsell, N.A., Peters, W., van der Laan-Luijkx, I.T. (2016) Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(21), 5880-5885. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519620113
2014 Sims, D.A., Brzostek, E.R., Dragoni, D., Rahman, A.F., Phillips, R.P. (2014) An improved approach for remotely sensing water stress impacts on forest C uptake, Global Change Biology, 20(9), 2856-2866. https://doi.org/10.1111
2014 Brzostek, E.R., Dragoni, D., Schmid, H.P., Rahman, A.F., Wayson, C.A., Johnson, D.J., Phillips, R.P. (2014) Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests, Global Change Biology, 8, 2531-2539. https://doi.org/10.1011

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 785m x 785m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    Utility
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am