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CA-Obs: Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

PI: Alan Barr - University of Saskatchewan
PI: Andy Black - University of British Columbia
PI: Warren Helgason - University of Saskatchewan
DataManager: Bruce Johnson - University of Saskatchewan
Technician: Cody David - University of Saskatchewan
Lat, Long: 53.9872, -105.1178
Elevation(m): 628.94
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, Phenocam
Vegetation IGBP: ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Almost all trees remain green all year. Canopy is never without green foliage.)
Climate Koeppen: Dfc (Subarctic: severe winter, no dry season, cool summer)
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 0.79
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 405.6
Flux Species Measured: CO2
Years Data Collected: 1999 - Present
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 1997 - 2010   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
Description: 53.98717° N, 105.11779° W, elavation of 628.94 m, BOREAS 1994, 1996, BERMS climate measurements began Dec. 1996 and flux measurements in Apr. 1999
Research Topics:
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  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
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CA-Obs: Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing CA-Obs data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if CA-Obs data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE:
    Citation: T. Andrew Black (2016), AmeriFlux BASE CA-Obs Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce, Ver. 1-1, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset).

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization



CA-Obs: Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

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CA-Obs: Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

Year Publication
2022 Pierrat, Z., Magney, T., Parazoo, N. C., Grossmann, K., Bowling, D. R., Seibt, U., Johnson, B., Helgason, W., Barr, A., Bortnik, J., Norton, A., Maguire, A., Frankenberg, C., Stutz, J. (2022) Diurnal And Seasonal Dynamics Of Solar‐Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Vegetation Indices, And Gross Primary Productivity In The Boreal Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 127(2), .
2021 Pierrat, Z., Nehemy, M. F., Roy, A., Magney, T., Parazoo, N. C., Laroque, C., Pappas, C., Sonnentag, O., Grossmann, K., Bowling, D. R., Seibt, U., Ramirez, A., Johnson, B., Helgason, W., Barr, A., Stutz, J. (2021) Tower‐Based Remote Sensing Reveals Mechanisms Behind A Two‐Phased Spring Transition In A Mixed‐Species Boreal Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 126(5), .
2020 Xu, B., Arain, M. A., Black, T. A., Law, B. E., Pastorello, G. Z., Chu, H. (2020) Seasonal Variability Of Forest Sensitivity To Heat And Drought Stresses: A Synthesis Based On Carbon Fluxes From North American Forest Ecosystems, Global Change Biology, 26(2), 901-918.
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350.
2012 Richardson, A. D., Anderson, R. S., Arain, M. A., Barr, A. G., Bohrer, G., Chen, G., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Davis, K. J., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Dragoni, D., Garrity, S. R., Gough, C. M., Grant, R., Hollinger, D. Y., Margolis, H. A., McCaughey, H., Migliavacca, M., Monson, R. K., Munger, J. W., Poulter, B., Raczka, B. M., Ricciuto, D. M., Sahoo, A. K., Schaefer, K., Tian, H., Vargas, R., Verbeeck, H., Xiao, J., Xue, Y. (2012) Terrestrial Biosphere Models Need Better Representation Of Vegetation Phenology: Results From The North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis, Global Change Biology, 18(2), 566-584.
2013 Barr, A., Richardson, A., Hollinger, D., Papale, D., Arain, M., Black, T., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Fischer, M., Gu, L., Law, B., Margolis, H., McCaughey, J., Munger, J., Oechel, W., Schaeffer, K. (2013) Use Of Change-Point Detection For Friction–Velocity Threshold Evaluation In Eddy-Covariance Studies, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 171-172, 31-45.
2009 GAUMONT-GUAY, D., BLACK, T. A., MCCAUGHEY, H., BARR, A. G., KRISHNAN, P., JASSAL, R. S., NESIC, Z. (2009) Soil Co2efflux In Contrasting Boreal Deciduous And Coniferous Stands And Its Contribution To The Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Global Change Biology, 15(5), 1302-1319.
2014 Gaumont-Guay, D., Black, T., Barr, A., Griffis, T., Jassal, R., Krishnan, P., Grant, N., Nesic, Z. (2014) Eight Years Of Forest-Floor Co2 Exchange In A Boreal Black Spruce Forest: Spatial Integration And Long-Term Temporal Trends, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 184, 25-35.
2008 Krishnan, P., Black, T. A., Barr, A. G., Grant, N. J., Gaumont-Guay, D., Nesic, Z. (2008) Factors Controlling The Interannual Variability In The Carbon Balance Of A Southern Boreal Black Spruce Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research, 113(D9), .
2018 Chu, H., Baldocchi, D. D., Poindexter, C., Abraha, M., Desai, A. R., Bohrer, G., Arain, M. A., Griffis, T., Blanken, P. D., O'Halloran, T. L., Thomas, R. Q., Zhang, Q., Burns, S. P., Frank, J. M., Christian, D., Brown, S., Black, T. A., Gough, C. M., Law, B. E., Lee, X., Chen, J., Reed, D. E., Massman, W. J., Clark, K., Hatfield, J., Prueger, J., Bracho, R., Baker, J. M., Martin, T. A. (2018) Temporal Dynamics Of Aerodynamic Canopy Height Derived From Eddy Covariance Momentum Flux Data Across North American Flux Networks, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9275–9287.
2015 Dennis Baldocchi, Cove Sturtevant (2015) Does day and night sampling reduce spurious correlation between canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration?, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 207, 117-126.
2007 Bergeron, O., Margolis, H. A., Black, T. A., Coursolle, C., Dunn, A. L., Barr, A. G., Wofsy, S. C. (2007) Comparison Of Carbon Dioxide Fluxes Over Three Boreal Black Spruce Forests In Canada, Global Change Biology, 13(1), 89-107.
2001 Nakamura, R., Mahrt, L. (2001) Similarity Theory For Local And Spatially Averaged Momentum Fluxes, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 108(4), 265-279.
2000 Nichol, C. J., Huemmrich, K. F., Black, T., Jarvis, P. G., Walthall, C. L., Grace, J., Hall, F. G. (2000) Remote Sensing Of Photosynthetic-Light-Use Efficiency Of Boreal Forest, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 101(2-3), 131-142.
1997 Brooks, J. R., Flanagan, L. B., Varney, G. T., Ehleringer, J. R. (1997) Vertical Gradients In Photosynthetic Gas Exchange Characteristics And Refixation Of Respired CO2 Within Boreal Forest Canopies, Tree Physiology, 17(1), 1-12.
1999 Malhi, Y., Baldocchi, D. D., Jarvis, P. G. (1999) The Carbon Balance Of Tropical, Temperate And Boreal Forests, Plant, Cell And Environment, 22(6), 715-740.
1997 Margolis, H. A., Ryan, M. G. (1997) A Physiological Basis For Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions In The Boreal Forest: An Overview, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 491-499.
1997 Jarvis, P. G., Massheder, J. M., Hale, S. E., Moncrieff, J. B., Rayment, M., Scott, S. L. (1997) Seasonal Variation Of Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, And Energy Exchanges Of A Boreal Black Spruce Forest, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D24), 28953-28966.
1997 Lavigne, M. B., Ryan, M. G. (1997) Growth And Maintenance Respiration Rates Of Aspen, Black Spruce And Jack Pine Stems At Northern And Southern BOREAS Sites, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 543-551.
2003 Griffis, T., Black, T., Morgenstern, K., Barr, A., Nesic, Z., Drewitt, G., Gaumont-Guay, D., McCaughey, J. (2003) Ecophysiological Controls On The Carbon Balances Of Three Southern Boreal Forests, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 117(1-2), 53-71.
2001 Bisbee, K., Gower, S., Norman, J., Nordheim, E. (2001) Environmental Controls On Ground Cover Species Composition And Productivity In A Boreal Black Spruce Forest, Oecologia, 129(2), 261-270.
1997 Saugier, B., Granier, A., Pontailler, J. Y., Dufrene, E., Baldocchi, D. D. (1997) Transpiration Of A Boreal Pine Forest Measured By Branch Bag, Sap Flow And Micrometeorological Methods, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 511-519.
2002 Mahrt, L., Vickers, D. (2002) Relationship Of Area-Averaged Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapour Fluxes To Atmospheric Variables, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 112(3-4), 195-202.
1999 Rayment, M. B., Jarvis, P. G. (1999) Seasonal Gas Exchange Of Black Spruce Using An Automatic Branch Bag System, Canadian Journal Of Forest Research, 29(10), 1528-1538.
2003 Chen, J. M., Ju, W., Cihlar, J., Price, D., Liu, J., Chen, W., Pan, J., Black, A., Barr, A. (2003) Spatial Distribution Of Carbon Sources And Sinks In Canada's Forests, Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 55(2), 622-641.
1999 Kucharik, C. J., Norman, J. M., Gower, S. T. (1999) Characterization Of Radiation Regimes In Nonrandom Forest Canopies: Theory, Measurements, And A Simplified Modeling Approach, Tree Physiology, 19(11), 695-706.
1999 Sandmeier, S., Deering, D. (1999) Structure Analysis And Classification Of Boreal Forests Using Airborne Hyperspectral BRDF Data From ASAS, Remote Sensing Of Environment, 69(3), 281-295.
1997 Sullivan, J. H., Bovard, B. D., Middleton, E. M. (1997) Variability In Leaf-Level CO2 And Water Fluxes In Pinus Banksiana And Picea Mariana In Saskatchewan, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 553-561.
2001 Whitehead, D., Gower, S. T. (2001) Photosynthesis And Light-Use Efficiency By Plants In A Canadian Boreal Forest Ecosystem, Tree Physiology, 21(12-13), 925-929.
1999 Gastellu-Etchegorry, J., Guillevic, P., Zagolski, F., Demarez, V., Trichon, V., Deering, D., Leroy, M. (1999) Modeling BRFAnd Radiation Regime Of Boreal And Tropical Forests, Remote Sensing Of Environment, 68(3), 281-316.
2001 Gower, S. T., Krankina, O., Olson, R. J., Apps, M., Linder, S., Wang, C. (2001) Net Primary Production And Carbon Allocation Patterns Of Boreal Forest Ecosystems, Ecological Applications, 11(5), 1395-1411.
2001 Swanson, R. V., Flanagan, L. B. (2001) Environmental Regulation Of Carbon Dioxide Exchange At The Forest Floor In A Boreal Black Spruce Ecosystem, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 108(3), 165-181.
2003 Turner, D. P., Urbanski, S., Bremer, D., Wofsy, S. C., Meyers, T., Gower, S. T., Gregory, M. (2003) A Cross-Biome Comparison Of Daily Light Use Efficiency For Gross Primary Production, Global Change Biology, 9(3), 383-395.
1999 Roujean, J. (1999) Measurements Of PAR Transmittance Within Boreal Forest Stands During BOREAS, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 93(1), 1-6.
1997 Steele, S. J., Gower, S. T., Vogel, J. G., Norman, J. M. (1997) Root Mass, Net Primary Production And Turnover In Aspen, Jack Pine And Black Spruce Forests In Saskatchewan And Manitoba, Canada, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 577-587.
1997 Goulden, M. L., Daube, B. C., Fan, S., Sutton, D. J., Bazzaz, A., Munger, J. W., Wofsy, S. C. (1997) Physiological Responses Of A Black Spruce Forest To Weather, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D24), 28987-28996.
1997 Lerdau, M., Litvak, M., Palmer, P., Monson, R. (1997) Controls Over Monoterpene Emissions From Boreal Forest Conifers, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 563-569.
1997 Kimball, J. S., Thornton, P. E., White, M. A., Running, S. W. (1997) Simulating Forest Productivity And Surface-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange In The BOREAS Study Region, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 589-599.
2002 Rayment, M. B., Loustau, D., Jarvis, P. J. (2002) Photosynthesis And Respiration Of Black Spruce At Three Organizational Scales: Shoot, Branch And Canopy, Tree Physiology, 22(4), 219-229.
2003 O'Connell, K. E., Gower, S. T., Norman, J. M. (2003) Comparison Of Net Primary Production And Light-Use Dynamics Of Two Boreal Black Spruce Forest Communities, Ecosystems, 6(3), 236-247.
2004 Bond-Lamberty, B., Wang, C., Gower, S. T. (2004) A Global Relationship Between The Heterotrophic And Autotrophic Components Of Soil Respiration?, Global Change Biology, 10(10), 1756-1766.
1997 Goulden, M. L., Crill, P. M. (1997) Automated Measurements Of CO2 Exchange At The Moss Surface Of A Black Spruce Forest, Tree Physiology, 17(8-9), 537-542.

CA-Obs: Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

CA-Obs: Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 597m x 597m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am