The pathway to summertime convective precipitation remains a vexing research problem because of the nonlinear feedback between soil moisture content and the atmosphere. Understanding this feedback is important to the southeastern U. S. region, given the high productivity of the timberland area and the role of summertime convective precipitation in maintaining this productivity. Here we… More

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How eco-physiological, biogeochemical and micrometeorological theory can be used to compute biosphere–atmosphere, trace gas exchange rates is discussed within the framework of a process model. The accuracy of the theory is tested by comparing computations of mass and energy flux densities (water vapor, sensible heat, CO2 and ozone) against eddy covariance measurements over five distinct… More

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Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of… More

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Northern peatlands are likely to be important in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks due to their large carbon pools and vulnerability to hydrological change. Use of non-peatland-specific models could lead to bias in modeling studies of peatland-rich regions. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2fluxes at three wetland sites in Canada and the northern… More

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Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in temperate forests is modulated by multiple microclimatic factors. The effects of these factors vary across time scales, with some correlated to produce confounding effects. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature (Ta) are among the two most important drivers of NEE in temperate forests and are highly correlated… More

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Anthropogenic and environmental pressures on wetland hydrology may trigger changes in carbon (C) cycling, potentially exposing vast amounts of soil C to rapid decomposition. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs) continuously from 2009 to 2010 in a lower coastal plain forested wetland in North Carolina, U.S., to characterize its main environmental drivers. To understand and… More

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The success of invasive aridland plants may depend on their utilization of precipitation not fully exploited by native species, which could lead to seasonally altered ecosystem carbon and water fluxes. We measured volumetric soil water across 25-cm profiles (θ25cm) and springtime whole-plant water- and carbon-fluxes of the exotic Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) and a native… More

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A numerical model that simulates the radiation regime inside a fully leafed and leafless deciduous forest canopy is discussed and tested. The model incorporates features which account for the vertical variation in leaf inclination angles and penumbral effects; these features have been experimentally shown to significantly influence the radiation regime in a deciduous forest. This… More

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The micrometeorological flux measurement technique known as relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) holds promise as a powerful new tool for ecologists. The more popular eddy covariance (eddy correlation) technique requires the use of sensors that can respond at fast rates (10 Hz), and these are unavailable for many ecologically relevant compounds. In contrast, the use of REA… More

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Making accurate estimations of daily and annual Rs fluxes is key for understanding the carbon cycle process and projecting effects of climate change. In this study we used high-frequency sampling (24 measurements per day) of Rs in a temperate rainforest during 1 year, with the objective of answering the questions of when and how often… More

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