Seasonal Variation Of Energy And Water Vapor Exchange Rates Above And Below A Boreal Jack Pine Forest Canopy

  • Sites: CA-Ojp
  • Baldocchi, D. D., Vogel, C. A., Hall, B. (1997) Seasonal Variation Of Energy And Water Vapor Exchange Rates Above And Below A Boreal Jack Pine Forest Canopy, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D24), 28939-28951.
  • Funding Agency: —

  • Fluxes of energy and water vapor over boreal forest stands are expected to vary during the growing season due to temporal variations in solar energy, soil and air temperature, soil moisture, photosynthetic capacity, and leaf area. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured fluxes of energy balance components (solar, latent and sensible heat, and soil and canopy heat storage) over and under a boreal jack pine forest in central Canada during the 1994 growing season. Temporal trends of daily-integrated energy fluxes were significant during a 117 day period between spring and autumn. Mean fluxes of net radiation and latent heat peaked near the summer solstice. By the autumnal equinox their magnitudes were half of their peak values. On a day-to-day basis the presence or absence of clouds modulated solar energy fluxes, while evaporation rates were dependent on whether the canopy was dry or wet. When the canopy was dry, daily evaporation was generally less than 2.5 mm d−1. This amount was less than one-half the rate of equilibrium evaporation and was low compared to evaporation from vegetation in temperate zones. When the canopy was wet, daily evaporation approached 3 mm d−1 and exceeded predicted rates of equilibrium evaporation. Evaporation from the dry forest was weakly coupled to available energy and was restricted by the canopy AEs low-surface conductance. Biotic factors limiting the forest AEs surface conductance include the forest AEs low-leaf area index and partial stomatal closure. Abiotic and physiological factors restricting stomatal opening included a scarce supply of soil moisture, limiting vapor pressure deficits and the low photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The fluxes of solar energy and latent and sensible heat at the floor of the forest were a significant portion of energy exchange between the forest and the atmosphere. Typically, 20 to 40% of the total energy exchange by the jack pine stand originated at the understory. Since a substantial amount of energy occurs under the forest, two-layer, not a big-leaf AE, evaporation models are recommended as a tool for estimating water vapor fluxes from this open forest stand.