Instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis are often implicitly or explicitly scaled to longer time frames to provide an understanding of plant performance in a given environment. For plants growing in a forest understory, results from photosynthetic light response curves in conjunction with diurnal light data are frequently extrapolated to daily photosynthesis (Aday), ignoring dynamic photosynthetic responses… More

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Nocturnal evapotranspiration (ETN) is often assumed to be negligible in terrestrial ecosystems, reflecting the common assumption that plant stomata close at night to prevent water loss from transpiration. However, recent evidence across a wide range of species and climate conditions suggests that significant transpiration occurs at night, frustrating efforts to estimate total annual evapotranspiration (ET)… More

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Interannual variability (IAV) in net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) is a critical factor in projections of future ecosystem changes. However, our understanding of IAV is limited because of the difficulty in isolating its numerous causes. We proposed that IAV in NEE is primarily caused by climatic variability, through its direct effects on photosynthesis and… More

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There is growing evidence that plant stomata have evolved physiological controls to satisfy the demand for CO2 by photosynthesis while regulating water losses by leaves in a manner that does not cause cavitation in the soil–root–xylem hydraulic system. Whether the hydraulic and biochemical properties of plants evolve independently or whether they are linked at a… More

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Net primary productivity (NPP) is enhanced under future atmospheric [CO2] in temperate forests representing a broad range of productivity. Yet questions remain in regard to how elevated [CO2]-induced NPP enhancement may be affected by climatic variations and limiting nutrient resources, as well as how this additional production is distributed among carbon (C) pools of different… More

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Seed terminal velocity and release height are recognized as key biotic determinants of long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds by wind. Yet, potential determinants at the ecosystem level, such as seasonal dynamics in foliage density characterizing many deciduous forests, have received much less attention. We integrated detailed field observations and experiments with a mechanistic wind dispersal… More

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One of the main challenges to quantifying ecosystem carbon budgets is properly quantifying the magnitude of night-time ecosystem respiration. Inverse Lagrangian dispersion analysis provides a promising approach to addressing such a problem when measured mean CO2 concentration profiles and nocturnal velocity statistics are available. An inverse method, termed ‘Constrained Source Optimization’ or CSO, which couples… More

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Above forest canopies, eddy covariance (EC) measurements of mass (CO2, H2O vapor) and energy exchange, assumed to represent ecosystem fluxes, are commonly made at one point in the roughness sublayer (RSL). A spatial variability experiment, in which EC measurements were made from six towers within the RSL in a uniform pine plantation, quantified large and… More

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This study is the first to contrast two similarity theory methods, the flux variance and the half-order time derivative, over a wide range of atmospheric stability and surface roughness conditions. These two methods were selected because they require only single-level temperature measurement to estimate sensible heat flux. The data used were collected over bare soil,… More

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A canopy Lagrangian turbulent scalar transport model for predicting scalar fluxes, sources, and sinks within a forested canopy was tested using CO2 concentration and flux measurements. The model formulation is based on the localized near-field theory (LNF) proposed by Raupach [1989a, b]. Using the measured mean CO2 concentration profile, the vertical velocity variance profile, and… More

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