Releases of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from thawing permafrost are expected to be among the largest feedbacks to climate from arctic ecosystems. However, the current net carbon (C) balance of terrestrial arctic ecosystems is unknown. Recent studies suggest that these ecosystems are sources, sinks, or approximately in balance at present…. More

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Similar nonsteady-state automated chamber systems were used to measure and partition soil CO2 efflux in contrasting deciduous (trembling aspen) and coniferous (black spruce and jack pine) stands located within 100km of each other near the southern edge of the Boreal forest in Canada. The stands were exposed to similar climate forcing in 2003, including marked… More

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Aerodynamic canopy height (ha) is the effective height of vegetation canopy for its influence on atmospheric fluxes and is a key parameter of surface‐atmosphere coupling. However, methods to estimate ha from data are limited. This synthesis evaluates the applicability and robustness of the calculation of ha from eddy covariance momentum‐flux data. At 69 forest sites,… More

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It is necessary to partition eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide exchange into its offsetting gross fluxes, canopy photosynthesis, and ecosystem respiration, to understand the biophysical controls on the net fluxes. And independent estimates of canopy photosynthesis (G) and ecosystem respiration (R) are needed to validate and parametrize carbon cycle models that are coupled with… More

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Tower and aircraft data from a number of field studies are analyzed to: (1) estimate the roughness lengths for local and area-averaged momentum fluxes over various surface types; (2) examine the applicability of the ψ-stability formulations of Paulson and Dyer for momentum fluxes; (3) investigate the possibility that tower flux measurements over tall vegetation are… More

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Using a helicopter-mounted portable spectroradiometer and continuous eddy covariance data we were able to evaluate the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) as an indicator of canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE) in four boreal forest species during the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere experiment (BOREAS). PRI was calculated from narrow waveband reflectance data and correlated with LUE calculated from… More

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Information on mass and energy exchange at the soil surface under vegetation is a critical component of micrometeorological, climate, biogeochemical and hydrological models. Under sparse boreal and western conifer forests as much as 50% of incident solar energy reaches the soil surface. How this energy is partitioned into evaporating soil moisture, heating the air and… More

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We compared vertical gradients in leaf gas exchange, CO2 concentrations, and refixation of respired CO2 in stands of Populus tremuloides Michx., Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. at the northern and southern boundaries of the central Canadian boreal forest. Midsummer gas exchange rates in Populus tremuloides were over twice those of the two… More

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