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US-Dk3: Duke Forest - loblolly pine

PI: A. Christopher Oishi - USDA Forest Service
PI: Kim Novick - Indiana University
PI: Paul Stoy - Montana State University
Lat, Long: 35.9782, -79.0942
Elevation(m): 163
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests: Lands dominated by woody vegetation with a percent cover >60% and height exceeding 2 meters. Almost all trees remain green all year. Canopy is never without green foliage.)
Climate Koeppen: Cfa (Humid Subtropical: mild with no dry season, hot summer)
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 14.36
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 1169.69
Flux Species Measured: CO2
Years Data Collected: 2001 - 2008
Years Data Available:

AmeriFlux BASE 2001 - 2008   Data Citation

Data Use Policy:AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 Policy1
The site was established in 1983 following a clear cut and a burn. Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) seedlings were planted at 2.4m by 2.4m spacing and ecosystem ...
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Research Topics:
The research and science objectives of the Duke Forest Loblolly Pine site are as follows: 1) Examine ecological roles of vegetation and climate in controlling ...
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Site Tasks
  1. This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
    The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if this site’s data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
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US-Dk3: Duke Forest - loblolly pine

Use the information below for citation of this site. See the Data Policy page for more details.

DOI(s) for citing US-Dk3 data

Data Use Policy: AmeriFlux CC-BY-4.0 License

This site’s data can also be used under the more restrictive AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.
The AmeriFlux Legacy Policy must be followed if US-Dk3 data are combined with data from sites that require the AmeriFlux Legacy Policy.

  • AmeriFlux BASE:
    Citation: Chris Oishi, Kim Novick, Paul Stoy (2018), AmeriFlux BASE US-Dk3 Duke Forest - loblolly pine, Ver. 4-5, AmeriFlux AMP, (Dataset).

To cite BADM when downloaded on their own, use the publications below for citing site characterization. When using BADM that are downloaded with AmeriFlux BASE and AmeriFlux FLUXNET products, use the DOI citation for the associated data product.

Publication(s) for citing site characterization



US-Dk3: Duke Forest - loblolly pine

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US-Dk3: Duke Forest - loblolly pine

Year Publication
2020 Zhang, Q., Barnes, M., Benson, M., Burakowski, E., Oishi, A. C., Ouimette, A., Sanders‐DeMott, R., Stoy, P. C., Wenzel, M., Xiong, L., Yi, K., Novick, K. A. (2020) Reforestation And Surface Cooling In Temperate Zones: Mechanisms And Implications, Global Change Biology, 26(6), 3384-3401.
2021 Chu, H., Luo, X., Ouyang, Z., Chan, W. S., Dengel, S., Biraud, S. C., Torn, M. S., Metzger, S., Kumar, J., Arain, M. A., Arkebauer, T. J., Baldocchi, D., Bernacchi, C., Billesbach, D., Black, T. A., Blanken, P. D., Bohrer, G., Bracho, R., Brown, S., Brunsell, N. A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Clark, K., Desai, A. R., Duman, T., Durden, D., Fares, S., Forbrich, I., Gamon, J. A., Gough, C. M., Griffis, T., Helbig, M., Hollinger, D., Humphreys, E., Ikawa, H., Iwata, H., Ju, Y., Knowles, J. F., Knox, S. H., Kobayashi, H., Kolb, T., Law, B., Lee, X., Litvak, M., Liu, H., Munger, J. W., Noormets, A., Novick, K., Oberbauer, S. F., Oechel, W., Oikawa, P., Papuga, S. A., Pendall, E., Prajapati, P., Prueger, J., Quinton, W. L., Richardson, A. D., Russell, E. S., Scott, R. L., Starr, G., Staebler, R., Stoy, P. C., Stuart-Haëntjens, E., Sonnentag, O., Sullivan, R. C., Suyker, A., Ueyama, M., Vargas, R., Wood, J. D., Zona, D. (2021) Representativeness Of Eddy-Covariance Flux Footprints For Areas Surrounding Ameriflux Sites, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 301-302, 108350.
2016 Novick, K. A., Ficklin, D. L., Stoy, P. C., Williams, C. A., Bohrer, G., Oishi, A., Papuga, S. A., Blanken, P. D., Noormets, A., Sulman, B. N., Scott, R. L., Wang, L., Phillips, R. P. (2016) The Increasing Importance Of Atmospheric Demand For Ecosystem Water And Carbon Fluxes, Nature Climate Change, 6(11), 1023-1027.
2013 Barr, A., Richardson, A., Hollinger, D., Papale, D., Arain, M., Black, T., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Fischer, M., Gu, L., Law, B., Margolis, H., McCaughey, J., Munger, J., Oechel, W., Schaeffer, K. (2013) Use Of Change-Point Detection For Friction–Velocity Threshold Evaluation In Eddy-Covariance Studies, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 171-172, 31-45.
2014 Matheny, A. M., Bohrer, G., Stoy, P. C., Baker, I. T., Black, A. T., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Gough, C. M., Ivanov, V. Y., Jassal, R. S., Novick, K. A., Schäfer, K. V., Verbeeck, H. (2014) Characterizing The Diurnal Patterns of Errors in The Prediction of Evapotranspiration by Several Land-Surface Models: An Nacp Analysis, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 119(7), 1458-1473.
2018 Chu, H., Baldocchi, D. D., Poindexter, C., Abraha, M., Desai, A. R., Bohrer, G., Arain, M. A., Griffis, T., Blanken, P. D., O'Halloran, T. L., Thomas, R. Q., Zhang, Q., Burns, S. P., Frank, J. M., Christian, D., Brown, S., Black, T. A., Gough, C. M., Law, B. E., Lee, X., Chen, J., Reed, D. E., Massman, W. J., Clark, K., Hatfield, J., Prueger, J., Bracho, R., Baker, J. M., Martin, T. A. (2018) Temporal Dynamics Of Aerodynamic Canopy Height Derived From Eddy Covariance Momentum Flux Data Across North American Flux Networks, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 9275–9287.
2018 Zhang, Q., Phillips, R. P., Manzoni, S., Scott, R. L., Oishi, A. C., Finzi, A., Daly, E., Vargas, R., Novick, K. A. (2018) Changes In Photosynthesis And Soil Moisture Drive The Seasonal Soil Respiration-Temperature Hysteresis Relationship, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 259, 184-195.
2003 Finzi, A. C., Schlesinger, W. H. (2003) Soil-Nitrogen Cycling In A Pine Forest Exposed To 5 Years Of Elevated Carbon Dioxide, Ecosystems, 6(5), 444-456.
2006 Richardson, A. D., Hollinger, D. Y., Burba, G. G., Davis, K. J., Flanagan, L. B., Katul, G. G., William Munger, J., Ricciuto, D. M., Stoy, P. C., Suyker, A. E., Verma, S. B., Wofsy, S. C. (2006) A Multi-Site Analysis Of Random Error In Tower-Based Measurements Of Carbon And Energy Fluxes, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 136(1-2), 1-18.
2000 Katul, G. G., Ellsworth, D. S., Lai, C. (2000) Modelling Assimilation And Intercellular CO2 From Measured Conductance: A Synthesis Of Approaches, Plant, Cell And Environment, 23(12), 1313-1328.
2004 Hui, D., Wan, S., Su, B., Katul, G., Monson, R., Luo, Y. (2004) Gap-Filling Missing Data In Eddy Covariance Measurements Using Multiple Imputation (MI) For Annual Estimations, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 121(1-2), 93-111.
2006 Siqueira, M. B., Katul, G. G., Sampson, D. A., Stoy, P. C., Juang, J., Mccarthy, H. R., Oren, R. (2006) Multiscale Model Intercomparisons Of CO2 And H2O Exchange Rates In A Maturing Southeastern US Pine Forest, Global Change Biology, 12(7), 1189-1207.
2002 Davidson, E., Savage, K., Bolstad, P., Clark, D., Curtis, P., Ellsworth, D., Hanson, P., Law, B., Luo, Y., Pregitzer, K., Randolph, J., Zak, D. (2002) Belowground Carbon Allocation In Forests Estimated From Litterfall And IRGA-Based Soil Respiration Measurements, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 39-51.
2002 Falge, E., Baldocchi, D., Tenhunen, J., Aubinet, M., Bakwin, P., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Burba, G., Clement, R., Davis, K. J., Elbers, J. A., Goldstein, A. H., Grelle, A., Granier, A., Guðmundsson, J., Hollinger, D., Kowalski, A. S., Katul, G., Law, B. E., Malhi, Y., Meyers, T., Monson, R. K., Munger, J., Oechel, W., Paw U, K. T., Pilegaard, K., Rannik, Ü., Rebmann, C., Suyker, A., Valentini, R., Wilson, K., Wofsy, S. (2002) Seasonality Of Ecosystem Respiration And Gross Primary Production As Derived From FLUXNET Measurements, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 53-74.
2001 Albertson, J. D., Katul, G. G., Wiberg, P. (2001) Relative Importance Of Local And Regional Controls On Coupled Water, Carbon, And Energy Fluxes, Advances In Water Resources, 24(9-10), 1103-1118.
2001 Katul, G., Lai, C., Schäfer, K., Vidakovic, B., Albertson, J., Ellsworth, D., Oren, R. (2001) Multiscale Analysis Of Vegetation Surface Fluxes: From Seconds To Years, Advances In Water Resources, 24(9-10), 1119-1132.
2004 Maier, C. A., Albaugh, T. J., Allen, H. L., Dougherty, P. M. (2004) Respiratory Carbon Use And Carbon Storage In Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda L.) Plantations: The Effect Of Site Resources On The Stand Carbon Balance, Global Change Biology, 10(8), 1335-1350.
2002 Finzi, A. C., Schlesinger, W. H. (2002) Species Control Variation In Litter Decomposition In A Pine Forest Exposed To Elevated CO2, Global Change Biology, 8(12), 1217-1229.
2005 Arain, M. A., Restrepo-Coupe, N. (2005) Net Ecosystem Production In A Temperate Pine Plantation In Southeastern Canada, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 128(3-4), 223-241.
2008 Stoy, P. C., Katul, G. G., Siqueira, M. B., Juang, J., Novick, K. A., Mccarthy, H. R., Oishi, A. C., Oren, R. (2008) Role Of Vegetation In Determining Carbon Sequestration Along Ecological Succession In The Southeastern United States, Global Change Biology, 14(6), 1409-1427.
2006 Stoy, P. C., Katul, G. G., Siqueira, M. B., Juang, J., Novick, K. A., Mccarthy, H. R., Christopher Oishi, A., Uebelherr, J. M., Kim, H., Oren, R. (2006) Separating The Effects Of Climate And Vegetation On Evapotranspiration Along A Successional Chronosequence In The Southeastern US, Global Change Biology, 12(11), 2115-2135.
2001 Katul, G. G., Lai, C., Albertson, J. D., Vidakovic, B., Schäfer, K. V., Hsieh, C., Oren, R. (2001) Quantifying The Complexity In Mapping Energy Inputs And Hydrologic State Variables Into Land-Surface Fluxes, Geophysical Research Letters, 28(17), 3305-3307.
2002 Hamilton, J., Finzi, A., DeLucia, E., George, K., Naidu, S., Schlesinger, W. (2002) Forest Carbon Balance Under Elevated CO2, Oecologia, 131(2), 250-260.
2002 Schafer, K. V., Oren, R., Lai, C., Katul, G. G. (2002) Hydrologic Balance In An Intact Temperate Forest Ecosystem Under Ambient And Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentration, Global Change Biology, 8(9), 895-911.
1995 Ellsworth, D. S., Oren, R., Huang, C., Phillips, N., Hendrey, G. R. (1995) Leaf And Canopy Responses To Elevated CO2 In A Pine Forest Under Free-Air CO2 Enrichment, Oecologia, 104(2), 139-146.
2005 Butnor, J. R., Johnsen, K. H., Maier, C. A. (2005) Soil Properties Differently Influence Estimates Of Soil CO2 Efflux From Three Chamber-Based Measurement Systems, Biogeochemistry, 73(1), 283-301.
2007 McCarthy, H. R., Oren, R., Finzi, A. C., Ellsworth, D. S., Kim, H., Johnsen, K. H., Millar, B. (2007) Temporal Dynamics And Spatial Variability In The Enhancement Of Canopy Leaf Area Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2, Global Change Biology, 13(12), 2479-2497.
2001 Oren, R., Pataki, D. E. (2001) Transpiration In Response To Variation In Microclimate And Soil Moisture In Southeastern Deciduous Forests, Oecologia, 127(4), 549-559.
2001 Luo, Y., Wu, L., Andrews, J. A., White, L., Matamala, R., Schafer, K. V., Schlesinger, W. H. (2001) Elevated CO2 Differentiates Ecosystem Carbon Processes: Deconvolution Analysis Of Duke Forest FACE Data, Ecological Monographs, 71(3), 357-376.
1999 Johnson, D. W. (1999) Simulated Nitrogen Cycling Response To Elevated CO2 In Pinus Taeda And Mixed Deciduous Forests, Tree Physiology, 19(4-5), 321-327.
2001 Luo, Y., Medlyn, B., Hui, D., Ellsworth, D., Reynolds, J., Katul, G. (2001) Gross Primary Productivity In Duke Forest: Modeling Synthesis Of CO2 Experiment And Eddy-Flux Data, Ecological Applications, 11(1), 239-252.
2007 Juang, J.-Y., Katul, G.G., Siqueira, M.B.S., Stoy, P.C., Novick, K.A. (2007) Separating The Effects Of Albedo From Eco-Physiological Changes On Surface Temperature Along A Successional Chronosequence In The Southeastern United States, Geophysical Research Letters, 34(21), n/a-n/a.
2003 Matamala, R., Gonzalez-Meler, M. A., Jastrow, J. D., Norby, R. J., Schlesinger, W. H. (2003) Impacts Of Fine Root Turnover On Forest NPP And Soil C Sequestration Potential, Science, 302(5649), 1385-1387.
2003 Schafer, K. V., Oren, R., Ellsworth, D. S., Lai, C., Herrick, J. D., Finzi, A. C., Richter, D. D., Katul, G. G. (2003) Exposure To An Enriched CO2 Atmosphere Alters Carbon Assimilation And Allocation In A Pine Forest Ecosystem, Global Change Biology, 9(10), 1378-1400.
2008 Oishi, A. C., Oren, R., Stoy, P. C. (2008) Estimating Components Of Forest Evapotranspiration: A Footprint Approach For Scaling Sap Flux Measurements, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 148(11), 1719-1732.
2003 Butnor, J. R., Johnsen, K. H., Oren, R., Katul, G. G. (2003) Reduction Of Forest Floor Respiration By Fertilization On Both Carbon Dioxide-Enriched And Reference 17-Year-Old Loblolly Pine Stands, Global Change Biology, 9(6), 849-861.
2004 Ellsworth, D. S., Reich, P. B., Naumburg, E. S., Koch, G. W., Kubiske, M. E., Smith, S. D. (2004) Photosynthesis, Carboxylation And Leaf Nitrogen Responses Of 16 Species To Elevated pCO2 Across Four Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Experiments In Forest, Grassland And Desert, Global Change Biology, 10(12), 2121-2138.
1999 Herrick, J. D., Thomas, R. B. (1999) Effects Of CO2 Enrichment On The Photosynthetic Light Response Of Sun And Shade Leaves Of Canopy Sweetgum Trees (Liquidambar Styraciflua) In A Forest Ecosystem, Tree Physiology, 19(12), 779-786.
2005 Hibbard, K. A., Law, B. E., Reichstein, M., Sulzman, J. (2005) An Analysis Of Soil Respiration Across Northern Hemisphere Temperate Ecosystems, Biogeochemistry, 73(1), 29-70.
2002 Naumburg, E., Ellsworth, D. S. (2002) Short-Term Light And Leaf Photosynthetic Dynamics Affect Estimates Of Daily Understory Photosynthesis In Four Tree Species, Tree Physiology, 22(6), 393-401.
2009 Novick, K., Oren, R., Stoy, P., Siqueira, M., Katul, G. (2009) Nocturnal Evapotranspiration In Eddy-Covariance Records From Three Co-Located Ecosystems In The Southeastern U.S.: Implications For Annual Fluxes, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 149(9), 1491-1504.
2003 Hui, D., Luo, Y., Katul, G. (2003) Partitioning Interannual Variability In Net Ecosystem Exchange Between Climatic Variability And Functional Change, Tree Physiology, 23(7), 433-442.
2003 Katul, G., Leuning, R., Oren, R. (2003) Relationship Between Plant Hydraulic And Biochemical Properties Derived From A Steady-State Coupled Water And Carbon Transport Model, Plant, Cell And Environment, 26(3), 339-350.
2006 McCarthy, H. R., Oren, R., Finzi, A. C., Johnsen, K. H. (2006) Canopy Leaf Area Constrains [Co2]-Induced Enhancement Of Productivity And Partitioning Among Aboveground Carbon Pools, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 103(51), 19356-19361.
2005 Nathan, R., Katul, G. G. (2005) Foliage Shedding In Deciduous Forests Lifts Up Long-Distance Seed Dispersal By Wind, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 102(23), 8251-8256.
2002 Lai, C., Katul, G., Butnor, J., Ellsworth, D., Oren, R. (2002) Modelling Night-Time Ecosystem Respiration By A Constrained Source Optimization Method, Global Change Biology, 8(2), 124-141.
2006 Oren, R., Hsieh, C., Stoy, P., Albertson, J., Mccarthy, H. R., Harrell, P., Katul, G. G. (2006) Estimating The Uncertainty In Annual Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange: Spatial Variation In Turbulent Fluxes And Sampling Errors In Eddy-Covariance Measurements, Global Change Biology, 12(5), 883-896.
2001 Wesson, K. H., Katul, G., Lai, C. (2001) Sensible Heat Flux Estimation By Flux Variance And Half-Order Time Derivative Methods, Water Resources Research, 37(9), 2333-2343.
1997 Katul, G., Oren, R., Ellsworth, D., Hsieh, C., Phillips, N., Lewin, K. (1997) A Lagrangian Dispersion Model For Predicting CO2 Sources, Sinks, And Fluxes In A Uniform Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda L.) Stand, Journal Of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D8), 9309-9321.
2006 Stoy, P. C., Katul, G. G., Siqueira, M. B., Juang, J., Novick, K. A., Uebelherr, J. M., Oren, R. (2006) An Evaluation Of Models For Partitioning Eddy Covariance-Measured Net Ecosystem Exchange Into Photosynthesis And Respiration, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 141(1), 2-18.
2004 Suwa, M., Katul, G. G., Oren, R., Andrews, J., Pippen, J., Mace, A., Schlesinger, W. H. (2004) Impact Of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Forest Floor Respiration In A Temperate Pine Forest, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18(2), n/a-n/a.
2007 Juang, J., Katul, G. G., Porporato, A., Stoy, P. C., Siqueira, M. S., Detto, M., Kim, H., Oren, R. (2007) Eco-Hydrological Controls On Summertime Convective Rainfall Triggers, Global Change Biology, 13(4), 887-896.
2000 Lai, C., Katul, G. (2000) The Dynamic Role Of Root-Water Uptake In Coupling Potential To Actual Transpiration, Advances In Water Resources, 23(4), 427-439.
2004 Bond-Lamberty, B., Wang, C., Gower, S. T. (2004) A Global Relationship Between The Heterotrophic And Autotrophic Components Of Soil Respiration?, Global Change Biology, 10(10), 1756-1766.
2004 Matamala, R., Gonzalez-Meler, M. A., Jastrow, J. D., Norby, R. J., Schlesinger, W. H. (2004) Response To Comment On "Impacts Of Fine Root Turnover On Forest NPP And Soil C Sequestration Potential", Science, 304(5678), 1745d-1745d.
2005 Palmroth, S., Maier, C. A., McCarthy, H. R., Oishi, A. C., Kim, H., Johnsen, K., Katul, G. G., Oren, R. (2005) Contrasting Responses To Drought Of Forest Floor CO2 Efflux In A Loblolly Pine Plantation And A Nearby Oak-Hickory Forest, Global Change Biology, 11(3), 421-434.
2016 Manoli, G., Domec, J.C., Novick, K.A., Oishi, A.C., Noormets, A., Marani, M., Katul, G. (2016) Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Conditions Regulating Convective Cloud Formation Above Southeastern US Pine Plantations, Global Change Biology, 000, 000-000.

US-Dk3: Duke Forest - loblolly pine

BADM for This Site

Access the Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata (BADM) information and data for this site.

BADM contain information for many uses, such as characterizing a site’s vegetation and soil, describing disturbance history, and defining instrumentation for flux processing. They complement the flux/met data.

* Online updates are shown on the Overview tab real time. However, downloaded BADM files will not reflect those updates until they have been reviewed for QA/QC.

US-Dk3: Duke Forest - loblolly pine

Wind Roses

Click an image below to enlarge it, or use the navigation panel.
  • Image scale: 821m x 821m
  • Data Collected:
  • Wind roses use variables ‘WS’ and ‘WD’.
    Download Data Download Wind Rose as Image File (PNG)

    Wind Speed (m/s)

  • Graph Type
  • Wind Speed Scale
  • Wind Direction Scale (%)
  • Show Satellite Image
  • Show Wind Rose
  • Annual Average
    About Ameriflux Wind Roses
    Wind Rose Explanation
    wind rose gives a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Presented in a circular format, a wind rose shows the frequency and intensity of winds blowing from particular directions. The length of each “spoke” around the circle indicates the amount of time (frequency) that the wind blows from a particular direction. Colors along the spokes indicate categories of wind speed (intensity). Each concentric circle represents a different frequency, emanating from zero at the center to increasing frequencies at the outer circles
    This information can be useful to gain insight into regions surrounding a flux tower that contribute to the measured fluxes, and how those regions change in dependence of the time of day and season. The wind roses presented here are for four periods of the year, and in 16 cardinal directions. Graphics are available for all sites in the AmeriFlux network based on reported wind measurements at each site.
    Data from each site can be downloaded by clicking the ‘download’ button.
    Hover the cursor over a wind rose to obtain directions, speeds and intensities.
    Note that wind roses are not equivalent to flux footprints. Specifically, the term flux footprint describes an upwind area “seen” by the instruments measuring vertical turbulent fluxes, such that heat, water, gas and momentum transport generated in this area is registered by the instruments. Wind roses, on the other hand, identify only the direction and speed of wind.
    Where do these data come from?
    The wind roses are based on observed hourly data from the sites registered with the AmeriFlux Network.
    Parameters for AmeriFlux Wind Roses
    To use wind roses for a single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Per Site
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): Per Site
    To compare wind roses from more than one single AmeriFlux site, the following parameters may be most useful:
    • Wind Speed Scale: Non-Linear
    • Wind Direction Scale (%): AmeriFlux
    Mar - Jun; 6am - 6pm
    Mar - Jun; 6pm - 6am
    Jun - Sep; 6am - 6pm
    Jun - Sep; 6pm - 6am
    Sep - Dec; 6am - 6pm
    Sep - Dec; 6pm - 6am
    Dec - Mar; 6am - 6pm
    Dec - Mar; 6pm - 6am