Turbulent fluxes of carbon, water vapor, and temperature were continuously measured above an upland forest in north central Wisconsin during 1999 and 2000 using the eddy covariance method. Maple (Acer saccharum), basswood (Tilia americana), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) species found in this forest also comprise a substantial portion of the landscape in the northern… More

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Soil temperature and moisture influence soil respiration at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Although soil temperature and moisture may be seasonally correlated, intra and inter-annual variations in soil moisture do occur. There are few direct observations of the influence of local variation in species composition or other stand/site characteristics on seasonal and annual… More

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The climate sensitivity of plant seasonal life cycles, or phenology, may impart significant carbon cycle feedbacks on climatic change. Analysis of interannual ecosystem carbon exchange provides one way to assess this climate sensitivity. Multiyear eddy covariance carbon dioxide flux observations from five different ecosystems (deciduous forest, northern hardwood mixed forest, old-growth forest, shrub wetland, and… More

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We measured component and whole-system respiration fluxes in northern hardwood (Acer saccharumMarsh., Tilia americana L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forest stands in Price County, northern Wisconsin from 1999 through 2002. Measurements of soil, leaf and stem respiration, stem biomass, leaf area and biomass, and vertical profiles of leaf area were combined… More

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We present the annual patterns of net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange (NEE) of CO2 and H2O observed from a 447 m tall tower sited within a mixed forest in northern Wisconsin, USA. The methodology for determining NEE from eddy-covariance flux measurements at 30, 122 and 396 m above the ground, and from CO2 mixing ratio measurements at 11, 30,… More

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The biosphere–atmosphere exchange of methane (CH4) was estimated for a temperate/boreal lowland and wetland forest ecosystem in northern Wisconsin for 1997–1999 using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method. Gradients of CH4 and CO2 and CO2 flux were measured on the 447-m WLEF-TV tower as part of the Chequamegon Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (ChEAS). No systematic diurnal variability… More

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Quantifying net carbon (C) storage by forests is a necessary step in the validation of carbon sequestration estimates and in assessing the possible role of these ecosystems in offsetting fossil fuel emissions. In eastern North America, five sites were established in deciduous forests to provide measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) using micro-meteorological methods,… More

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Over two-thirds of terrestrial carbon is stored belowground and a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 is respired by roots and microbes in soils. For this analysis, soil respiration (Rs) data were assembled from 31 AmeriFlux and CarboEurope sites representing deciduous broadleaf, evergreen needleleaf, grasslands, mixed deciduous/evergreen and woodland/savanna ecosystem types. Lowest to highest rates of… More

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We examine the atmospheric budget of CO2 at temperate continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. On a monthly time scale both surface exchange and atmospheric transport are important in determining the rate of change of CO2 mixing ratio at these sites. Vertical differences between the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere over the continent are… More

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Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the region (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack… More

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