Core Ideas Studying the critical zone requires targeted research on water, energy, gas, solutes, and sediments. The SSHCZO targets a 165-km2 watershed on sedimentary rocks in the northeastern United States. One SSHCZO subcatchment, Shale Hills, provides extraordinary data describing a shale CZ. The Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) was established to investigate the… More

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A fully coupled land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM, is developed by incorporating a land surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Because PIHM is capable of simulating lateral water flow and deep ground- water at spatial resolutions sufficient to resolve… More

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