Releases of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from thawing permafrost are expected to be among the largest feedbacks to climate from arctic ecosystems. However, the current net carbon (C) balance of terrestrial arctic ecosystems is unknown. Recent studies suggest that these ecosystems are sources, sinks, or approximately in balance at present…. More

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Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions dominate the atmospheric greenhouse gas radiative forcing budget. However, these emissions are poorly constrained at the regional and seasonal scales. Here, we use a combination of tall tower CO2 mixing ratio and carbon isotope ratio observations and inverse modeling techniques to constrain anthropogenic CO2 emissions within a highly heterogeneous agricultural… More

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The oxygen isotope of water (18O-H2O) and carbon dioxide (18O-CO2) is an important signal of global change and can provide constraints on the coupled carbon-water cycle. Here, simultaneous observations of 18O-H2O (liquid and vapor phases) and 18O-CO2 were used to investigate the relation between canopy leaf water 18O enrichment, 18O-CO2 photosynthetic discrimination (18Δ), isotope disequilibrium… More

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Agricultural crops with a C4 photosynthetic pathway rapidly expanded across North America as early as 800 A.D. Their distribution continues to expand globally as demands for food and biofuel production increase. These systems are highly productive, having a significant impact on carbon and water exchange between the land and atmosphere. Here, we investigate the relative… More

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