Releases of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from thawing permafrost are expected to be among the largest feedbacks to climate from arctic ecosystems. However, the current net carbon (C) balance of terrestrial arctic ecosystems is unknown. Recent studies suggest that these ecosystems are sources, sinks, or approximately in balance at present…. More

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Aerodynamic canopy height (ha) is the effective height of vegetation canopy for its influence on atmospheric fluxes and is a key parameter of surface‐atmosphere coupling. However, methods to estimate ha from data are limited. This synthesis evaluates the applicability and robustness of the calculation of ha from eddy covariance momentum‐flux data. At 69 forest sites,… More

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The possibility of global, three-dimensional remote sensing of forest structure with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) bears on important forest ecological processes, particularly the carbon cycle. InSAR supplements two-dimensional remote sensing with information in the vertical dimension. Its strengths in potential for global coverage complement those of lidar (light detecting and ranging), which has the… More

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Information on mass and energy exchange at the soil surface under vegetation is a critical component of micrometeorological, climate, biogeochemical and hydrological models. Under sparse boreal and western conifer forests as much as 50% of incident solar energy reaches the soil surface. How this energy is partitioned into evaporating soil moisture, heating the air and… More

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Allocation of C to belowground plant structures is one of the most important, yet least well quantified fluxes of C in terrestrial ecosystems. In a literature review of mature forests worldwide, Raich and Nadelhoffer (1989) suggested that total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) could be estimated from the difference between annual rates of soil respiration and… More

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Differences in the seasonal pattern of assimilatory and respiratory processes are responsible for divergences in seasonal net carbon exchange among ecosystems. Using FLUXNET data (http://www.eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET) we have analyzed seasonal patterns of gross primary productivity (FGPP), and ecosystem respiration (FRE) of boreal and temperate, deciduous and coniferous forests, Mediterranean evergreen systems, a rainforest, temperate grasslands, and… More

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To assess the relative influence of edaphoclimatic gradients and stand replacing disturbance on the soil respiration of Oregon forests, we measured annual soil respiration at 36 independent forest plots arranged as three replicates of four age classes in each of three climatically distinct forest types. Annual soil respiration for the year 2001 was computed by… More

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