Large datasets of greenhouse gas and energy surface-atmosphere fluxes measured with the eddy-covariance technique (e.g., FLUXNET2015, AmeriFlux BASE) are widely used to benchmark models and remote-sensing products. This study addresses one of the major challenges facing model-data integration: To what spatial extent do flux measurements taken at individual eddy-covariance sites reflect model- or satellite-based grid… More

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Accurate estimates of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD) are important for estimating the exchange of energy and gases in vegetative canopies. Direct estimates of LAI and LAD are laborious, time consuming and often times destructive. Stewart and Dwyer [Agric. For. Meteorol. 66 (1993) 247] introduced a mathematical method to calculate LAI… More

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High evaporative demand and periodic drought characterize the growing season in midwestern grasslands relative to deciduous forests of the eastern US, and predicted climatic changes suggest that these climatic extremes may be exacerbated. Despite this less than optimal environment for tree seedling establishment, deciduous trees have expanded into adjacent tallgrass prairie within the last century… More

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