Large datasets of greenhouse gas and energy surface-atmosphere fluxes measured with the eddy-covariance technique (e.g., FLUXNET2015, AmeriFlux BASE) are widely used to benchmark models and remote-sensing products. This study addresses one of the major challenges facing model-data integration: To what spatial extent do flux measurements taken at individual eddy-covariance sites reflect model- or satellite-based grid… More

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Isotopic exchange with atmospheric vapour can strongly influence the isotopic values of evaporating surface water bodies (e.g., lakes), influencing our understanding of hydrological processes across aquatic and terrestrial environments. Rather than measure the isotopic values of the atmosphere directly, it is much more common to estimate values by assuming equilibrium with local precipitation. This assumption… More

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Sublimation is an important hydrological flux in cold, snow-dominated ecosystems. In high-elevation spruce-fir forests of western North America, spruce beetle outbreaks have killed trees, reduced the canopy, and altered processes that control sublimation. We evaluated two hypotheses related to effects of disturbance on sublimation in this ecosystem: (1) the dominant source for sublimation is canopy… More

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