Large datasets of greenhouse gas and energy surface-atmosphere fluxes measured with the eddy-covariance technique (e.g., FLUXNET2015, AmeriFlux BASE) are widely used to benchmark models and remote-sensing products. This study addresses one of the major challenges facing model-data integration: To what spatial extent do flux measurements taken at individual eddy-covariance sites reflect model- or satellite-based grid… More

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Multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant water-use efficiency (WUE)-the ratio of carbon assimilation to water loss-has increased in recent decades. Although rising atmospheric CO2 has been proposed as the principal cause, the underlying physiological mechanisms are still being debated, and implications for the global water cycle remain uncertain. Here, we addressed this gap using… More

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Aerodynamic canopy height (ha) is the effective height of vegetation canopy for its influence on atmospheric fluxes and is a key parameter of surface‐atmosphere coupling. However, methods to estimate ha from data are limited. This synthesis evaluates the applicability and robustness of the calculation of ha from eddy covariance momentum‐flux data. At 69 forest sites,… More

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In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This phenomenon indicates the importance… More

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Forest evapotranspiration (ET) estimates that include scaled sap flux measurements often underestimate eddy covariance (EC)-measured latent heat flux (LE). We investigated potential causes for this bias using 4 years of coupled sap flux and LE measurements from a mature oak-hickory forest in North Carolina, USA. We focused on accuracy in sap flux estimates from heat… More

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Soil CO2 efflux is a major component of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of forest systems. Combining data from multiple researchers for larger-scale modeling and assessment will only be valid if their methodologies provide directly comparable results. We conducted a series of laboratory and field tests to assess the presence and magnitude of soil CO2 efflux… More

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