Phenology is experiencing dramatic changes over deciduous forests in the USA. Estimates of trends in phenology on the continental scale are uncertain, however, with studies failing to agree on both the magnitude and spatial distribution of trends in spring and autumn. This is due to the sparsity of in situ records, uncertainties associated with remote… More

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In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This phenomenon indicates the importance… More

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It is necessary to partition eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide exchange into its offsetting gross fluxes, canopy photosynthesis, and ecosystem respiration, to understand the biophysical controls on the net fluxes. And independent estimates of canopy photosynthesis (G) and ecosystem respiration (R) are needed to validate and parametrize carbon cycle models that are coupled with… More

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Allocation of C to belowground plant structures is one of the most important, yet least well quantified fluxes of C in terrestrial ecosystems. In a literature review of mature forests worldwide, Raich and Nadelhoffer (1989) suggested that total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) could be estimated from the difference between annual rates of soil respiration and… More

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FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long–term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes temperate conifer and broadleaved (deciduous and evergreen) forests, tropical and boreal forests,… More

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Most satellites provide, at best, a single daily snapshot of vegetation and, at worst, these snapshots may be separated by periods of many days when the ground was obscured by cloud cover. Since vegetation carbon exchange can be very dynamic on diurnal and day-to-day timescales, the limited temporal resolution of satellite data is a potential… More

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Hourly observations of forest-atmosphere energy balance components are presented for the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, south-central Indiana, USA for the period March 1998 to December 2001, with particular emphasis on the storage heat flux (ΔQS). The sub-components of ΔQS showed strong diurnal variability, although ground heat flux dominated the seasonal change of storage heat flux. The… More

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The role of mid-latitude forests in the sequestration of carbon (C) is of interest to an increasing number of scientists and policy-makers alike. Net CO2 exchange can be estimated on an annual basis, using eddy-covariance techniques or from ecological inventories of C fluxes to and from a forest. Here we present an intercomparison of annual… More

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We tested the hypothesis that the date of the onset of net carbon uptake by temperate deciduous forest canopies corresponds with the time when the mean daily soil temperature equals the mean annual air temperature. The hypothesis was tested using over 30 site-years of data from 12 field sites where CO2 exchange is being measured… More

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