Aerodynamic canopy height (ha) is the effective height of vegetation canopy for its influence on atmospheric fluxes and is a key parameter of surface‐atmosphere coupling. However, methods to estimate ha from data are limited. This synthesis evaluates the applicability and robustness of the calculation of ha from eddy covariance momentum‐flux data. At 69 forest sites,… More

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In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This phenomenon indicates the importance… More

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Forest evapotranspiration (ET) estimates that include scaled sap flux measurements often underestimate eddy covariance (EC)-measured latent heat flux (LE). We investigated potential causes for this bias using 4 years of coupled sap flux and LE measurements from a mature oak-hickory forest in North Carolina, USA. We focused on accuracy in sap flux estimates from heat… More

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Soil CO2 efflux is a major component of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of forest systems. Combining data from multiple researchers for larger-scale modeling and assessment will only be valid if their methodologies provide directly comparable results. We conducted a series of laboratory and field tests to assess the presence and magnitude of soil CO2 efflux… More

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The magnitude of changes in carboxylation capacity in dominant plant species under long-term elevated CO2 exposure (elevated pCa) directly impacts ecosystem CO2 assimilation from the atmosphere. We analyzed field CO2 response curves of 16 C3 species of different plant growth forms in favorable growth conditions in four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in a pine… More

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Nocturnal evapotranspiration (ETN) is often assumed to be negligible in terrestrial ecosystems, reflecting the common assumption that plant stomata close at night to prevent water loss from transpiration. However, recent evidence across a wide range of species and climate conditions suggests that significant transpiration occurs at night, frustrating efforts to estimate total annual evapotranspiration (ET)… More

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There is growing evidence that plant stomata have evolved physiological controls to satisfy the demand for CO2 by photosynthesis while regulating water losses by leaves in a manner that does not cause cavitation in the soil–root–xylem hydraulic system. Whether the hydraulic and biochemical properties of plants evolve independently or whether they are linked at a… More

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We compared four existing process-based stand-level models of varying complexity (physiological principles in predicting growth, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration, biogeochemical cycles, and stand to ecosystem carbon and evapotranspiration simulator) and a new nested model with 4 years of eddy-covariance-measured water vapor (LE) and CO2 (Fc) fluxes at a maturing loblolly pine forest. The nested model resolves… More

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In order to evaluate factors controlling transpiration of six common eastern deciduous species in North America, a model describing responses of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) to net radiation (RN), vapor pressure deficit (D) and relative extractable soil water (REW) was parameterized from sap flux data. Sap flux was measured in 24 mature trees consisting of… More

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