Three independent methods were used to evaluate transpiration of a boreal forest: the branch bag, sap flow and eddy covariance methods. The branch bag method encloses several thousand needles and gives a continuous record of branch transpiration. The sap flow method provides a continuous record of sap velocity and an estimate of tree transpiration. The… More

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Area-averaged fluxes are constructed from a combination of aircraft and tower data collected during BOREAS. The averaging area includes both conifer and deciduous forests, wetlands, burned areas and bodies of water. The area-averaged water vapour flux is closely related to the area-averaged solar radiation while the area-averaged carbon dioxide flux and water use efficiency (WUE)… More

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Four large cuvettes were used to measure whole-branch CO2 and H2O vapour exchange at the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study, Southern Study Area, Old Black Spruce site. Measurements started before the spring thaw and continued until after the winter freeze-up. Daytime photosynthesis, nighttime respiration, transpiration rate, and branch conductances were zero at the start and the end… More

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We used field measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of canopy gap-size distribution and gap fraction to examine how beam radiation interacts with clumped boreal forest canopies of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). We demonstrate that the Beer-Lambert law can be modified to accommodate transmission… More

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A new approach is presented for deriving vegetation canopy structural characteristics from hyperspectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data. The methodology is based on the relationship between spectral variability of BRDF effects and canopy geometry. Tests with data acquired with the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) over Canadian boreal forests during the BOREAS campaign show… More

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We measured seasonal and canopy-level gas exchange in two stands of jack pine (Pinus banksianaLamb.) and one stand of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) on relatively clear days from late May until mid-September 1994. Field measurements were made with a portable infrared gas analyzer, and laboratory measurements included photosynthetic oxygen evolution and needle chemical… More

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Measurements of the photosynthetic response to midsummer irradiance were made for 11 species representing the dominant trees, understory shrubs, herbaceous plants and moss species in an old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) boreal forest ecosystem. Maximum rates of photosynthesis per unit foliage area at saturating irradiance, Amax, were highest for aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.),… More

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Monitoring of forest evolution and functioning with remote sensing depends on canopy BRF (bidirectional reflectance factor) sensitivity to biophysical parameters and to canopy PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) regime. Here, we study the canopy BRF of a tropical (Sumatra) and three boreal (Canada) forest sites, with the DART (discrete anisotropic radiative transfer) model. The behavior of… More

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