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US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)

PI: David Hollinger - USDA Forest Service
Lat, Long: 45.2091, -68.7470
Elevation(m): 91
Network Affiliations: AmeriFlux
Vegetation IGBP: ENF (Evergreen Needleleaf Forests)
Climate Koeppen: Dfb (Warm Summer Continental: significant precipitation in all seasons )
Mean Annual Temp (°C): 5.13
Mean Annual Precip. (mm): 1064
Flux Species Measured: CO2
Years Data Collected: AmeriFlux: 1999 - Present
Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), ...
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Research Topics: Carbon sequestration
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US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)

AmeriFlux user: This tab is under development. Below are new values we’re thinking of offering. Please send your feedback and requests to the AmeriFlux Data Team at

Derived Quantities

  • LAI (cm2/g)
  • Canopy Height (m)
  • Photosynthesis
  • GPP
  • Latent Heat Exchange
  • Net Ecosystem Exchange
  • PPFD (Visible Light)
  • Precipitation (mm)
  • Ecosystem Respiration
  • Solar Radiation (Rg)
  • Rn (Net Radiation) W/m2
  • Air Temp (°C)
  • Vapor Pressure Deficit
  • Veg Properties
  • Plant Functional Type
  • Disturbance History

  • Instruments, Rel to Ref Pt

  • Elevation (m)
  • r, Θ (m, rad)

  • Soils Template

  • Soil Texture
  • Bulk Density (g/cm3)
  • Soil Carbon Stock and/or Density (tons/cm)
  • Approximate Area: 672.93 m2

    US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)

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    Publications to use for Citations for this Site



    US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)

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    US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)


    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index image for this site.

    For time series, data download and other MODIS products for this site, visit MODIS cutouts.




    ORNL DAAC. 2008. MODIS Collection 5 Fixed Sites Subsetting and Visualization Tool. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    Read more on how to cite these MODIS images. Data come from NASA’s MODIS instruments installed on satellites Terra and Aqua, which scan the entire Earth’s surface every one to two days.

    US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)

    Year Publication
    2015 Dennis Baldocchi, Cove Sturtevant (2015) Does day and night sampling reduce spurious correlation between canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration?, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 207, 117-126.
    2005 Xiao, X., Zhang, Q., Hollinger, D., Aber, J., Moore, B. (2005) Modeling Gross Primary Production Of An Evergreen Needleleaf Forest Using Modis And Climate Data, Ecological Applications, 15(3), 954-969.
    2004 Xiao, X., Hollinger, D., Aber, J., Goltz, M., Davidson, E. A., Zhang, Q., Moore, B. (2004) Satellite-Based Modeling Of Gross Primary Production In An Evergreen Needleleaf Forest, Remote Sensing Of Environment, 89(4), 519-534.
    2006 Davidson, E. A., Richardson, A. D., Savage, K. E., Hollinger, D. Y. (2006) A Distinct Seasonal Pattern Of The Ratio Of Soil Respiration To Total Ecosystem Respiration In A Spruce-Dominated Forest, Global Change Biology, 12(2), 230-239.
    2005 Richardson, A. D., Hollinger, D. Y. (2005) Statistical Modeling Of Ecosystem Respiration Using Eddy Covariance Data: Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation, And Monte Carlo Simulation Of Model And Parameter Uncertainty, Applied To Three Simple Models, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 131(3-4), 191-208.
    2002 Thornton, P., Law, B., Gholz, H. L., Clark, K. L., Falge, E., Ellsworth, D., Goldstein, A., Monson, R., Hollinger, D., Falk, M., Chen, J., Sparks, J. (2002) Modeling And Measuring The Effects Of Disturbance History And Climate On Carbon And Water Budgets In Evergreen Needleleaf Forests, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology, 113(1-4), 185-222.

    US-Ho2: Howland Forest (west tower)

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