Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mutualists with plant roots that are proposed to enhance plant community diversity. Models indicate that AM fungal communities could maintain plant diversity in forests if functionally different communities are spatially separated. In this study we assess the spatial and temporal distribution of the AM fungal community in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. We test whether distinct fungal communities correlate with variation in tree life history characteristics, with host tree species, and the relative importance of soil type, seasonality and rainfall. Host tree species differ in their associated AM fungal communities, but differences in the AM community between hosts could not be generalized over life history groupings of hosts. Changes in the relative abundance of a few common AM fungal species were the cause of differences in AM fungal communities for different host tree species instead of differences in the presence and absence of AM fungal species. Thus, AM fungal communities are spatially distinguishable in the forest, even though all species are widespread. Soil fertility ranging between 5 and 9 Mg/ha phosphorus did not affect composition of AM fungal communities, although sporulation was more abundant in lower fertility soils. Sampling soils over seasons revealed that some AM fungal species sporulate profusely in the dry season compared to the rainy season. On one host tree species sampled at two sites with vastly different rainfall, relative abundance of spores from Acaulospora was lower and that of Glomus was relatively higher at the site with lower and more seasonal rainfall.