tThe Mediterranean-type oak/grass savanna of California is composed of widely spaced oak trees withunderstory grasses. These savanna regions are interspersed with large areas of more open grasslands.The ability of remotely sensed data (with various spatial resolutions) to monitor the phenology in thesewater-limited oak/grass savannas and open grasslands is explored over the 2012–2015 timeframe usingdata from… More

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Time series of vegetation indices (e.g. normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]) and color indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate [GCC]) based on radiometric measurements are now available at different spatial and temporal scales ranging from weekly satellite observations to sub-hourly in situ measurements by means of near-surface remote sensing (e.g. spectral sensors or digital cameras). In… More

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It is necessary to partition eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide exchange into its offsetting gross fluxes, canopy photosynthesis, and ecosystem respiration, to understand the biophysical controls on the net fluxes. And independent estimates of canopy photosynthesis (G) and ecosystem respiration (R) are needed to validate and parametrize carbon cycle models that are coupled with… More

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In this paper, we describe the process of assessing tower footprint climatology, spatial variability of site vegetation density based on satellite image analysis, and sensor location bias in scaling up to 1 km × 1 km patch. Three flat sites with different vegetation cover and surface heterogeneity were selected from AmeriFlux tower sites: the oak/grass site and the annual… More

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Most satellites provide, at best, a single daily snapshot of vegetation and, at worst, these snapshots may be separated by periods of many days when the ground was obscured by cloud cover. Since vegetation carbon exchange can be very dynamic on diurnal and day-to-day timescales, the limited temporal resolution of satellite data is a potential… More

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Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of seasonally dry grasslands in Mediterranean climate zones is determined by the duration and intensity of rainy vs. dry seasons. Precipitation in these zones is expected to decline with climate change during the next century, possibly reducing NEP. Ecosystem models used to study climate change impacts on grasslands in these zones… More

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Understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate the carbon flux over grassland is critical for large-scale modeling research, since grasslands comprise almost one-third of the earth’s natural vegetation. To address this issue, fluxes of CO2 (Fc, flux toward the surface is negative) were measured over a Mediterranean, annual grassland in California, USA for… More

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Savannas and open grasslands often co-exist in semi-arid regions. Questions that remain unanswered and are of interest to biometeorologists include: how do these contrasting landscapes affect the exchanges of energy on seasonal and annual time scales; and, do biophysical constraints imposed by water supply and water demand affect whether the land is occupied by open… More

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To understand the dynamics of ecosystem carbon cycling, CO2 fluxes were measured over and under an oak–grass savanna and over a proximate grassland in California. The measurements were made from 2000 to 2006 using the eddy covariance technique. Annual net carbon exchange (NEE) ranged from −155 to −56 gC m−2 year−1 and from −88 to 141 gC m−2 year−1 at the… More

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