Aerodynamic canopy height (ha) is the effective height of vegetation canopy for its influence on atmospheric fluxes and is a key parameter of surface‐atmosphere coupling. However, methods to estimate ha from data are limited. This synthesis evaluates the applicability and robustness of the calculation of ha from eddy covariance momentum‐flux data. At 69 forest sites,… More

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Recent climate variability and anomaly in the Great Lakes region provided a valuable opportunity in examining the response and regulation of ecosystem carbon cycling across different ecosystems. A simple Bayesian hierarchical model was developed and fitted against three-year (2011–2013) net ecosystem CO2 exchange (FCO2) data observed at three eddy-covariance sites (i.e., a deciduous woodland, a… More

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The impacts of extreme weather events on water–carbon (C) coupling and ecosystem-scale water use efficiency (WUE) over a long term are poorly understood. We analyzed the changes in ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) from 10 years of eddy-covariance measurements (2004–2013) over an oak-dominated temperate forest in Ohio, USA. The aim was to investigate the long-term… More

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Climate change projections predict an intensifying hydrologic cycle and an increasing frequency of droughts, yet quantitative understanding of the effects on ecosystem carbon exchange remains limited. Here, the effect of contrasting precipitation and soil moisture dynamics were evaluated on forest carbon exchange using 2 yr of eddy covariance and microclimate data from a 50-yr-old mixed oak… More

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Soil respiration (SR) represents a major component of forest ecosystem respiration and is influenced seasonally by environmental factors such as temperature, soil moisture, root respiration, and litter fall. Changes in these environmental factors correspond with shifts in plant phenology. In this study, we examined the relationship between canopy phenophases (pre-growth, growth, pre-dormancy, and dormancy) and… More

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Water availability is one of the key environmental factors that control ecosystem functions in temperate forests. Changing climate is likely to alter the ecohydrology and other ecosystem processes, which affect forest structures and functions. We constructed a multi-year water budget (2004–2010) and quantified environmental controls on an evapotranspiration (ET) in a 70-year-old mixed-oak woodland forest… More

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Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in temperate forests is modulated by multiple microclimatic factors. The effects of these factors vary across time scales, with some correlated to produce confounding effects. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature (Ta) are among the two most important drivers of NEE in temperate forests and are highly correlated… More

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