In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This phenomenon indicates the importance… More

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Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model–data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters… More

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Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy (sensible heat, H, and latent heat, LE) and CO2 (FCO2) represent the “true” flux plus or minus potential random and systematic measurement errors. Here, we use data from seven sites in the AmeriFlux network, including five forested sites (two of which include “tall tower” instrumentation), one grassland site, and one… More

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A spectrum of models that estimate assimilation rate A from intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) and measured stomatal conductance to CO2 (gc) were investigated using leaf-level gas exchange measurements. The gas exchange measurements were performed in a uniform loblolly pine stand (Pinus taeda L.) using the Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility under ambient and… More

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Missing data is a ubiquitous problem in evaluating long-term experimental measurements, such as those associated with the FluxNet project, due to the equipment failures, system maintenance, power-failure, and lightning strikes among other things. To estimate annual values of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), such gaps in… More

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We compared four existing process-based stand-level models of varying complexity (physiological principles in predicting growth, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration, biogeochemical cycles, and stand to ecosystem carbon and evapotranspiration simulator) and a new nested model with 4 years of eddy-covariance-measured water vapor (LE) and CO2 (Fc) fluxes at a maturing loblolly pine forest. The nested model resolves… More

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Allocation of C to belowground plant structures is one of the most important, yet least well quantified fluxes of C in terrestrial ecosystems. In a literature review of mature forests worldwide, Raich and Nadelhoffer (1989) suggested that total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) could be estimated from the difference between annual rates of soil respiration and… More

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Differences in the seasonal pattern of assimilatory and respiratory processes are responsible for divergences in seasonal net carbon exchange among ecosystems. Using FLUXNET data (http://www.eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET) we have analyzed seasonal patterns of gross primary productivity (FGPP), and ecosystem respiration (FRE) of boreal and temperate, deciduous and coniferous forests, Mediterranean evergreen systems, a rainforest, temperate grasslands, and… More

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